Lesson 1


Introduction To Apple's Logic


Learning About Logic

Logic is a software program that allows you to edit, record, mix, and master digital audio and MIDI files on your Macintosh computer. The program uses nonlinear hard disk recording (unlike tape recorders, Logic allows you to go immediately to any spot in a recording without having to rewind or fast-forward.), and nondestructive digital editing (An editing mode in Logic where the original recorded material is not altered).


Getting Started
 

Installing Logic

If you own a copy of Logic with documentation, please be sure to read all the documentation on how to best install your Logic software and hardware.

This Course Assumes That You Are Using Logic Pro X . If you are not, you will need to upgrade to Logic Pro 9. This course also assumes that you have set up your audio interface and have a MIDI keyboard connected to your computer.


Understanding Signal Flow

Now that your studio is set up, you really need to understand how audio signals travel through your studio gear. This is called signal flow. Signal Flow is a very important concept. It will help you to understand how your studio works, and also help you to correct any problems that may occur in your studio.



When you sing, you create an acoustical sound wave that pushes air.
Sound is simply a vibration in the air. Sound waves travel outward in all directions from the source of the sound. Our ears then pick the waves in the air and our brain interprets the compressions in the air.

A vibration occurs over a single wavelength.
Frequency is a measure of how many vibrations occur within the time span of one-second or when a wave progresses through its crest and trough and starts over again. This is measured in Hertz (abbreviation Hz) and is a direct correlation to sound. In music, a pure sine wave of 440 Hz is the note A on the fourth octave of the piano.

Amplitude is a measure of the amount of energy in a waveform, or the amount of air being moved by the wave. Amplitude is indicated by the height of the crest and the depth of the trough of a waveform as represented in the graph below. Amplitude refers to loudness and is measured in decibels (db).

As a wave, sound has two main components:
frequency and amplitude. The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch. A frequency ratio of 2:1 is called an octave.

Screen shot 2012-04-25 at 5.58.06 AM

If your hearing is working correctly, you should be able to hear from 20Hz to 20,000 Hz or 20kHz.


Below is a guide to some of the more common frequencies in the music world.

Low bass (20 to 80 Hz) includes the first two octaves. These low frequencies are associated with power and are typified by explosions, thunder, and the lowest notes of the organ, bass, tuba, and other instruments. Too much low bass results in a muddy sound.

Upper bass (80 to 320 Hz) includes the third and fourth octaves. Rhythm and support instruments such as the drum kit, cello, trombone, and bass use this range to provide a fullness or stable anchor to music. Too much upper bass results in a boomy sound.

Mid-range (320 to 2,560 Hz) includes the fifth through seventh octaves. Much of the richness of instrumental sounds occur in this range, but if over-emphasized a tinny, fatiguing sound can be the result.

Upper mid-range (2,560 to 5,120 Hz) is the eighth octave. Our ear is very particular about sound in this range, which contributes much to the intelligibility of speech, the clarity of music, and the definition or "presence" of a sound. Too much upper mid-range is abrasive.

Treble (5,120 to 20,000 Hz) includes the ninth and tenth octaves. Frequencies in this range contribute to the brilliance or "air" of a sound, but can also emphasize noise.

Sounds below 20 Hz are infrasonic; sounds above 20 kHz are ultrasonic. There is much debate on how frequencies in these ranges affect hearing.

If you sing into a microphone, the mic will detect the sound wave and transform (transduce) that acoustical sound wave into electrical current. The electrical current is an “electrical picture” of your voice’s sound wave.

The electrical current travels through the microphone cable, then into a mic preamplifier. The mic preamp amplifies the current to a higher volume level called “
line level”. Line level is the standard level for all recording equipment. From the mic preamp, the current is then directed to an input on your mixer or audio interface.

When you are recording in Logic, the audio current must be converted to digital data (remember the 0s and 1s!), so that your computer can record the sound wave data and store it on your hard drive. The analog-to-digital conversion usually takes place on your computer or other device containing an A/D (analog to digital) converter.

Here is a simple explanation on how analog waveforms are converted to digital:

Screen shot 2012-04-25 at 5.58.41 AM
An analog waveform now represented by voltage.



Screen shot 2012-04-25 at 5.59.09 AM
The first step in digitizing an audio waveform is to slice it up into moments in time, a time sample is taken at each vertical dotted line.

Screen shot 2012-04-25 at 5.59.29 AM
This is what the sample looks like after it has been digitized. Notice that we still have the basic shape of the waveform, but the smoothness has been lost.


Screen shot 2012-04-25 at 5.59.38 AM
The goal is to represent the signal with a string of numbers that represent measurements of each sample.

Screen shot 2012-04-25 at 6.00.02 AM
Next, the signal is quantized, because a computer can’t think in subjective terms. We have to fit this into the binary language. The higher the quantization level, the more accurate the picture. A grainy photo would represent a low quantization level. A clear photo represents a high quantization level. A CD has 65, 536 possible levels that it uses when measuring an audio signal.

Your signal will now be processed by Logic and loaded as a track, or it may be routed through a bus in Logic's virtual mixer.

Once you have your signal in Logic and on the hard drive, it is edited, processed, sent back out through Logic's mixer, converted back to an analog current, and sent to your speakers.




Screen shot 2012-04-25 at 6.00.29 AM

Now that all those digits are stored on your hard drive, we have to turn it back into a sound wave so you can hear it. This is the wave now being turned back into voltage.

Screen shot 2012-04-25 at 6.00.37 AM
This is what is sent out of your system. There are other things that have to be done to the wave, but I just want to give you a basic idea of the process.

Anti-Aliasing

Some sounds carry frequencies that our ears can’t detect. For example, the ringing of a crash cymbal contains frequencies above 20 kHz that a human ear can’t detect.

If we are sampling at a rate of 44.1 kHz (CD sample rate) those high frequencies are cut off and a new waveform is created without those high frequencies called an
alias, or a false identity. This alias frequency creates a distortion of the sound if it is left in there. The cymbal sound will be distorted. Imagine all of the sounds that carry frequencies that we can’t hear. If sampled at 44.1 kHz there will be a lot of distortion on the samples.

So, the solution is to filter out any frequencies above 20 kHz (the limit of our hearing range) so they don’t get aliased. This is called
anti-aliasing.

A
Low Pass Filter, which allows only frequencies below a certain range to pass through, is inserted into the signal path before the sound is sampled and digitally converted.


The
low pass filter can’t really kick in right at 20 kHz so there is a margin of several thousand hertz for the filter to kick in all the way. With a sample rate of 44.1 we have an extra 4.1 or 8 kHz to play with above the 40 kHz mark. We won’t miss the sound of the filtered out frequencies because our ears can’t detect them anyway. Now the sampled sound will not be aliased, and more importantly, it won’t be distorted. The sound will be clean.

Logic's Sound and Memory Requirements

Sound files and audio samples take up a lot of space on your hard drive. The higher the sampling levels the more space! Many software-recording programs now allow for higher sampling levels well above 44.1 kHz. This is great, but remember that it takes up a lot of room on your hard drive and, if you want to burn your music to CD higher sampling rates will have to be converted back to 44.1 kHz (more on that later).

Let’s look at an example of how much hard drive space audio files eat up!

24 tracks of audio, a 5 minute song, 24 bit depth, 44.100 sample rate will work out to be about 7, 620, 480, 000 bits.

In simpler terms, about 908 MB, or almost 1 Gig on your hard drive.
You can do the math for about 10 songs, or a CDs worth of music. I hope you have a large hard drive!

I will discuss some memory saving tips for getting that number down later in the course.

Wow! That is a lot to digest, especially since all of this happens in the blink (or two) of your eye.

Gain Structure

A gain structure is a flow chart that shows you how your audio signal is routed before it gets onto your hard drive and into Logic. This includes any amplifier (or attenuator) that affects the level of your audio signal. Any time we pass an audio signal through a piece of equipment, we are adding noise to the signal. Let’s look at a gain structure on a standard mixer set up.

Plug the microphone into a mixer, and the signal passes through a mic pre-amp that is controlled by a “trim” or Gain” knob.

The signal now passes through a mixer channel controlled by a fader.

The signal may now be routed through the master fader, a sub-mix bus, an aux bus, or a control room/headphone mix. The audio signal really can travel a long way before it comes back out again.

If you understand how signals flow in your studio, you can help you to get optimal recording levels through all of your gear.

The rest of the gain stages can be controlled in the Logic's Mixer. If you are using an audio interface, the input gain stages are controlled by the rotary knobs or faders on the device.

Screen shot 2012-04-25 at 6.00.59 AM

Take the time to find out how you can monitor your input gain stages by using one of the methods mentioned above. Each software installation will be different.

Logic Project 1 :

Write down the Gain Structure in your Recording Studio or DAW. Include any microphones, or other input devices that may be going into your Logic set-up. This is important to do in case you have an emergency and something is not working correctly. This document will help you to troubleshoot the problem.


Recap: Lesson 1

This week we spent some time learning basic audio concepts. You should have a better understanding of:

Basic Signal Flow
Waveforms
Amplitude
Frequency
Analog to Digital Conversions
Anti-Aliasing
Memory Requirements for Audio
Gain Structure


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Lesson 2

Getting Started With Logic
 
I am assuming that you have Logic installed on your Mac and that you have your audio interface and MIDI keyboard set up and working correctly. If not, please refer to the Logic Help File for more information on how to set up and configure your audio and MIDI keyboard.
 
Launching Logic
 
Go to the dock and launch Logic. Go to the
File pull down menu and select New.
 
image002
 
You will now see the following window:
 
image004
 
Note: Yours may look a little different, but it is the same concept. Note: Logic may launch to this window automatically.
 
Select
Empty Project 
 
After you have selected
Empty Project,
 image006
 
Click on the
Choose Button  image008
 
 
You will be presented with another window:
 
image010
 
 
This allows us to add new tracks to our empty project. You have five choices:
 
Audio
 
Software Instrument (also knows as virtual instrument)
 
External MIDI (if you have any external MIDI devices connected to your Mac)
 
Drummer
 
Guitar or Bass
 
For now, we are going to select
1 Software Instrument. Also click on the Open Library box.
 
image012
 
Then click on
Create.
 
image014
 
This will add a new software instrument track and open the library, which allows you to access all of the sounds that come with Logic.
 
image016
Logic's Arrange Window. Library is located on the left hand side of the window.
 
If you look to the left, you will notice that each track you create in Logic comes with its own set of faders, located in a
Channel Strip. If you position your mouse over a fader, you can move it up and down to control the volume level of each track you create.
 
Logic's Sound Library
 
On the Left-hand side of Logic's
Arrange Window, you can view the Library.
image018
Logic's Sound Library
 
We are going to click on the
Piano and select
Bosendorfer Grand Piano.
 
image020
 
The instrument will load into Logic and appear in Logic's track list.
 
 
image022
 
You will also notice that some other items appear in the track list
 
image024
 
The
EXS24 is the software instrument that will be playing your piano sounds. If you double click on the EXS24 in the track, you will be viewing the software instrument.
 
image026
The EXS24 User Interface
 
This allows you to change any of the parameters for the
EXS24, but that is whole other topic. For now, close the window by clicking the x located in the upper left-hand side of the window.
 
Auditioning Sounds in Logic
 
Assuming that you have a MIDI keyboard hooked up and working on your Mac, we are now going to audition our selected sound.
 
To hear your software instrument, make sure that your
Bosendorfer track is record enabled. Do this by clicking on the record icon next to the track name.
 
 
image028
Record enabling the track.
 
Now play your MIDI keyboard. You should now be able to hear a nice grand piano sound!
 
Logic Project 2:
 
Experiment with Logic's Software Instruments (also known in the rest of the world as Virtual Instruments or VIs)
Set up 3 different software tracks with different sounds.

Saving Your Logic Projects Tutorial:
 
Go to the
File pull down menu in Logic and select Save
 
image030
 
I have titled mine
Tutorial. Make sure that you save it to your Desktop for easy access.
 
Also make sure that you have the following checked (note that Folder is selected in Organize my Project…
 
image032
Saving to the Desktop
 
The logic project folder should now appear on your desktop
 
image034



 
Adding New Tracks
 
There are a couple of different methods for adding tracks to your Logic
Arrange Window.
 
1. Go to the
Track pull down menu located at the top of the Arrange Window and select new…
 
image036
 
 
2. Click on the
 
image038
 
+ icon located to the far left above the first track name and you will see a familiar looking dialog box.
 
image040
New track dialog box
 
The
image042 to the right will create an exact duplicate of a track that you have selected.
 
Add a new
audio track. You can see that you will have an empty channel strip with nothing loaded into it.
 
image044
 
Notice that the
Library Icon has also changed:
 
image046
 
Here is another method of loading or changing a software instrument into Logic:
 
Make sure that the Boesendorfer Piano track is selected by clicking on it.
 
image048
 
 
Click and hold your mouse on the right-hand side of the box titled above
ESX24 in the I/O (Input/output) section of the track.
 
image050
 
You will now see a list of
Software Instruments that are installed in Logic.
 
image052
 
Note, that if you have installed third party AU (Audio Unit) Virtual Instruments like Kontakt or Spectrasonics, for example. They will appear in the
Au Instruments pull down menu.
 
image054
 
 
 
 
Let's select the
EFM1 stereo FM Synth.
 
image056
 
 
You will now see the following Window:
 
image058
EFM1 software instrument user interface
 
 
Click and hold your mouse on the
default pull down menu located at the top of the dialog box and you will see a pull down menu of sounds that this instrument produces.
 
image060
Sound Menu for the EFM1
 
 
Select
FM Pads- Calming for your sound.
 
image062
 
Close the
EFM1 sound dialog box by clicking on the upper left-hand corner of the box.
 
You will now see the software instrument appear in your
Channel Strip.
 
image064
 
Record-enable the track and audition the sound.
g link:
 
Clip 1 (Launching Logic Pro X)


Chapter 2 Recap

You should now be more familiar with:

Creating a new Logic project
Adding software Instruments
Saving a Logic Project
Inserting a software instrument into a Channel Strip
Auditioning different sounds within Logic
Record-enabling an instrument track.


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Lesson 3

Recording MIDI and Software Instruments

Create a new Logic project and title it Lesson 3. A highly original name!

Add an acoustic piano track to your project. Your choice!

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.38.32 PM

My piano of choice.

Make sure that you save your project to your desktop for easy access.
(Yes I know, this is Lesson 3, not 5).

Screen shot 2012-05-02 at 5.27.06 AM

Make sure that your Apple Loops window is open by clicking on the Apple Loops icon on the upper right-hand side of the screen.

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.39.25 PM


You will now see the Loops window in Logic.

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.42.51 PM
Loops Window in Logic

There are two methods for browsing loops:

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.44.03 PM

The first icon looks like the Finder on a Mac. You should be familiar with that one!

The second icon breaks the loops down in a list:

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.44.11 PM


For now let's click on By Genres

The following appears:

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.47.01 PM

The triangles to the right of the words allow you to further expand your search.

Let's select the
Rock/Blues genre and then All Drums


Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.48.09 PM


As you can see, we have over one thousand drum loops at our disposal!

You will also notice some other columns including
Beats, Tempo, and Key.

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.48.53 PM

Tempo refers to the original tempo of the loop, key, is the key of the original loop (in this case since it is a drum loop, they key is not available), beats refers to the duration of the loop.

To audition a loop, just single click on the loop name, and it will start playing. To stop the audition, single click on the loop name again.

Green Loops, Blue Loops

If a loop is Green then that means it is a MIDI loop and contains MIDI data that you can easily edit and change. A green loop can be used on software instrument tracks or audio tracks.

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.50.37 PM Green MIDI Loops

If a loop is
Blue then it is an audio loop that contains audio data and can only be used on audio tracks.

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.51.13 PM
Blue Audio Loops


Adding A Loop To A Track

After you find the loop that you like, you can just drag the loop from the Media window onto a track in your Arrange window. It is that simple.

For our example we are going to grab and drag the
60s Shuffle Drumset 01 onto our arrange window below our piano track. Don't worry about creating a track for your loop, Logic will do that for you automatically.

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.53.07 PM


You will probably see the following message. Select
No in this case because we do not want to change our project tempo to the loop tempo.

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.52.51 PM


After you have dragged your loop onto the
Arrange window, it should look like this.


Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.53.59 PM


Note:

To start developing some mixing and engineering chops, you can learn a lot from the folks that developed Logic.

Look at the channel strip for your piano, it may contain an effect or EQ setting that you can open by double clicking. In my piano track if I double-click the
Compressor under the Inserts

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.54.28 PM

I see the following:

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.55.44 PM



This shows me how the folks at Apple applied the compressor settings to make the piano sound fuller and richer! You can learn a lot by peaking under the hood!!!

Extending Our Drum Loop

Let's extend our drum loop to play for eight full bars. This is very simple in Logic. Hold down the Option key on your keyboard while clicking on the drum loop in the Arrange Window and then grab the loop and slide it over to the next open measure. Repeat this process until the drum loop looks as follows:

Screen Shot 2014-01-23 at 1.57.15 PM
Repeated drum loop

We will be learning how to edit loops, MIDI, and audio tracks later in the tutorial.

To view a brief tutorial on creating a loop in Logic X click on the following link:


Clip 2


Logic Project 3:

Record an eight bar loop using any Apple loop that you want.




Tempo and Time Signature

At the top of Logic's Arrange Window is our Transport controls.

Screen Shot 2014-01-24 at 1.49.51 PM

The Transport window is the control center for Logic. For this exercise we will be changing our tempo to match the tempo of our loop, which is 125 beats per minute.

Locate the middle section of the
Transport window

Screen Shot 2014-01-24 at 1.51.53 PM

Now locate the Tempo (120)

Screen Shot 2014-01-24 at 1.52.18 PM This number is our tempo.

To change the tempo, double click on the tempo number
and enter 125 then hit
Return on your keyboard

Screen Shot 2014-01-24 at 1.53.36 PM

The tempo of our sequence in now set to 125, matching our loop tempo.

If you notice the 4/4 number to the right of the tempo number, this tells us the time signature of our project. You can also change that by clicking on the 4/4 marking. For now, let's keep our sequence in 4/4 time.

Playing Back Our Sequence

Located to the left of the Transport window are our playback controls. For you older folks, these look just like the playback controls on a cassette deck. (Hey, I even remember 45 records)!

Screen Shot 2014-01-24 at 1.54.06 PM
Logic's playback controls

You can start and stop your playback by just hitting your spacebar on your computer keyboard.

You can rewind your sequence back the beginning by hitting the number
0 on your computer keyboard.

You can also click on the controls on your
Transport window.

The following is a description of the transport buttons, from left to right:

Screen Shot 2014-01-24 at 1.55.16 PM Rewind Moves the playhead back one measure at a time.

Screen Shot 2014-01-24 at 1.57.22 PM Forward Moves the playhead forward one measure at a time.


Screen Shot 2014-01-24 at 1.58.14 PM Go To Beginning.


Screen Shot 2014-01-24 at 1.58.22 PM Play


Screen Shot 2014-01-24 at 1.58.30 PM Record

Note:

  • You can Control-click (or right-click) any of the buttons to customize each of the controls.
  • If you Control-click or Right-Click the Transport bar
Screen Shot 2014-01-24 at 2.02.36 PM
  • You will see the following page:
Screen Shot 2014-01-24 at 2.02.48 PM

Experiment with the different controls located on the Transport Window.


Configuring The Cycle Range

Logic allows you to set a range of start and stop points in your sequence. This is especially helpful when you are recording and don't want to start your sequence from the beginning each time.

Directly to the right of our tempo and time signature box is a set of icons.

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.19.59 AM

Click on the first icon from the left to select it. This is the Cycle Range icon.

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.20.37 AM
Selecting the Cycle Range.

You will now see a yellow bar appear across the top of the
Arrange Window Ruler

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.21.11 AM

If you move your mouse on top of the Cycle Range it will now turn to a hand. Grab the middle of the Cycle Range to move the entire range across the ruler.

To extend or contract the
Cycle Range, move your mouse the right hand corner, it will now turn to an arrow.

Try extending your
Cycle Range for the full length of our drum loop.

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.22.14 AM
Cycle range extended to match our drum loop.

Now hit your space bar to start playing the sequence. Notice that when it gets to the end of the sequence, it will start playing again from the beginning of the green cycle setting.

Note, when you set your cycle beginning to something other than the beginning of the sequence, when you hit the space bar on your computer, your Logic will automatically go back to the start of your Cycle Region.

To view a brief tutorial on changing tempo, and setting your Cycle Region in Logic click on the following link:


Clip 3

Click Tracks and Setting The Metronome

When you are planning a recording where you can't get all the musicians in the studio at the same time. It is best to have a click track set up using a metronome so that each musician will be playing in time.

To configure the
Metronome in Logic, Control-click the Metronome icon

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.29.35 AM

Select
Metronome Settings.

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.31.26 AM

You will now see the following dialog box:

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.31.36 AM
Project settings

There is an instrument built into Logic called
Klopfgeist. This is the built-in metronome sound for Logic. Make sure that the Audio Click (Klopfgeist) box is checked.

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.34.03 AM


You can also set the tonality, volume, and output of your metronome

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.34.17 AM

Experiment with different volumes and Tonalities to find one that best works for you.



Setting A Count In

In the Project Settings dialog window, click on the Recording icon

Screen shot 2012-05-02 at 5.44.08 AM

This dialog box will allow you to select a count-in for your metronome. I prefer one bar, but at faster tempos I usually select a two-bar count-in.

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.41.31 AM

Close the dialog box and return to your Arrange Window.

The last step in setting our Metronome is to click on the Metronome icon in our Transport Controls. In this case I have also highlighted the count off icon showing that I have four beats count off before I begin recording.

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.43.02 AM
Selecting the Metronome and count off.

Playback your sequence and you will now hear a
Metronome click.

When you record (we are going to do that next) you will also hear a count in before Logic starts to record.



Recording a MIDI (Software Instrument) Track

Recording in Logic is easy and straightforward. Recording a MIDI track will also create a notated version that you can view in Logic's Score Editor.

For this example, let's keep our drum loop. Make sure that your drum loop extends for at least eight full measures.

We are going to be using our created piano track to record MIDI. Record-enable your piano track, so that you can hear a piano sound when you play your MIDI keyboard.

Your
Arrange Window should look at follows:

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.48.56 AM

For this example, I am not using Cycle record, since we are just dipping our toes into the MIDI recording water.

Make sure that your
Bosendorfer Grand Piano Track is selected and the record icon is enabled as shown above.

Rewind your sequence back to the beginning by hitting
0 on your numeric keypad.

To start recording and start your count-in you may either click on the
record icon on the Transporter controls

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.47.10 AM

or, type the * key (the asterisk key) on your numeric keypad to automatically begin recording.

Try to record at least eight-measures on your piano track. When you have finished, you should have something that looks like this:

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.50.50 AM
My piano MIDI recording with a drum loop.

Viewing Your MIDI Track

Double click on your MIDI piano track in the Arrange Window.

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.52.50 AM


Notice the buttons at the bottom of the Logic Interface

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.53.04 AM

This allows you to view MIDI data in a variety of different ways.

Click on the
Score button as shown above.

You will now see a notational view of the piano MIDI track that you played into Logic.

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.53.11 AM
My piano track in the Score Window.

Now select the
Piano Roll button.

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.57.23 AM

You will now see a piano roll representation of you MIDI track.

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.57.29 AM


Now click on the
Step Editor button.

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.58.17 AM

You will now see the following window:

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 5.58.47 AM

The
Step Editor allows you to add MIDI controllers, change volume, pan, and other edits to your MIDI track (more on that later).

To close this window, simply place your cursor at the top of the
Step Editor window and notice that it turns to an up/down arrow. Click and drag the window down to hide it.

Note: You can also access the
Step Editor by clicking on the following icon

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.29.31 AM

Located in the upper right hand side of the
Arrange area. This is an easy method of showing/hiding the window.


Expanding Your Tack View and Changing Track Order

If you move your mouse over the middle of track name, you can now drag the track up and down in the Arrange Window. This allows you to change the order of the tracks.

If you move your mouse to the lower left side of the track name, it becomes an up/down arrow, allowing you to grab the track and expand it downward so that you have a larger view area.

Screen Shot 2014-01-28 at 6.02.26 AM
Expanded track view



Logic Project 4:

Record a MIDI piano or other Software Instrument track along with a drum loop. It does not have to be long, eight-measures will be just dandy! Get a feel for using loops!



Chapter 3 Recap

You should now be more familiar with:

Adding loops to your Logic Project
Extending loops
Working with Logic's Transport Controls
Working with Software Instruments
Setting up a recording Cycle
Configuring your metronome
Changing the tempo of a Logic sequence
Recording a MIDI track using a click track or metronome.


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Lesson 4

Adding Multiple Time Signatures To A Project

Create a new Logic project and title it Lesson 4. Again, a highly original name! Add a software Instrument for the opening dialog box when you launch Logic.

There may be times when you have a project that will include time signature changes and tempo changes all within the same project.

Let's start with
Time Signatures. Our default time signature when we open a Logic Project is 4/4. For this exercise, we are going to change our time signature to 3/4 starting in measure 5

Click on the
Cycle icon, so that it turns yellow

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.24.28 AM

Grab the middle of the Cycle bar at the top of the screen and move it to Measure 5.

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.25.12 AM

Your Transport Window should look as follows:

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.25.51 AM
Transport indicating our start is 5/1/1

Now select the
List Editors icon located on the top right in the Arrange Window.

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.32.45 AM

You will now see the following window:

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.32.53 AM


Click on the
Signature Tab in the List Editor

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.38.03 AM


Make sure that your
Play-head is positioned at the start of measure 5.

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.35.18 AM

Locate the 4/4 time signature in the Transport Window

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.36.20 AM

Double click the time signature and change the top number to 3, so that we now have a 3/4 time signature.

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.36.53 AM

Now look at the menu and notice that your time signature change appears in the timeline beginning at measure 5.

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.38.09 AM

You can repeat the above process to add multiple time signatures throughout your project.


Creating Multiple Tempos In Logic

Now we are going to create several tempo changes in our project. This is a little different to what we did when we created time signature changes

We are going to be making three different types of tempo changes.

The first is a sudden tempo change.

The second is an
Accellerando or a gradual speeding up of the tempo.

The third is a gradual slowing down of the tempo called a
Ritard.

Make sure that you have selected Tempo in the List Editor

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.42.20 AM

From the
Options pull down menu select Tempo Operations:

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.42.12 AM

You will now see the following Window:

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.44.56 AM


In the Density box we are going to select 1/4. The higher the Density the smoother the tempo change will be. The higher the number, the more CPU power is used. Since this will be a sudden tempo change, we are really not too concerned with a smooth transition.

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.44.47 AM


Creating A Constant Tempo Change

For this exercise, we are going to have the tempo change suddenly in Measure 6 to a tempo of 145

Enter the following:

In the
Operation pull down menu select Create Constant Tempo

In The Position box, change the first number (measure #) to 6

In the
Tempo box enter 145.

Check the
Continue with new Tempo box. This will change the tempo for the duration of your project.

Your window should look as follows.


Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.50.06 AM

Click the
Apply button and notice your tempo change in the Tempo Operations window.


Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.50.20 AM


Creating An Accelerando

This is achieved pretty much the same way as the process described above with a few changes.

In the
Operation pull down menu select Create Tempo Curve

We are going to have our tempo increase from 120 to 160 starting in measure five and arriving to the new tempo in measure 10.

Enter in the following info:



Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 4.01.25 AM

Click the
Apply button and notice your tempo change in the Tempo Operations window.


Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 3.59.00 AM

You now see the gradual tempo changes. Play your sequence back with the metronome on and listen
to the tempo as it speeds up.


To create a ritard, just reverse the process.


To view a brief tutorial on creating Time Signatures and Tempo Maps in Logic click on the following link:


Clip 4


Logic Project 5:

Create a new Logic Project with at least two tempo changes that include an accelerando and ritard!


Customizing Your Transport Bar

If you want to add more options to your Transport Bar,

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 4.20.15 AM

simply Control-click anywhere on the Transport Bar, and you will see the following message.

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 4.20.25 AM

Click on Customize Transport Bar and you will now see a dialog box:

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 4.20.33 AM

Customize Transport Dialog Box

This allows you several options for starting, stopping and viewing what appears in your
Transport Bar.

Experiment with using different options with the Transport and Display options.


Customizing Your Metronome Settings

Locate your Metronome in the Transport Bar.

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 4.23.06 AM
Metronome

Place your mouse over the
Metronome icon and hold it down and select Metronome Settings from the pull down menu that appears. You will now see the following menu:

Screen Shot 2014-01-29 at 4.23.53 AM

This allows you to configure your Metronome for recording and playback. Experiment with different settings.



Chapter 4 Recap

You should now be more familiar with:

Adding multiple time signatures

Creating multiple tempo mappings

Using the pointer, pencil, and eraser tool

Creating an Accellerando

Creating a Ritard

Using Lists to create tempo changes

Using Lists to create tempo curves

Customizing your Transport Bard

Customizing your Metronome

Working with Master Level control


l arrow To Home Page






Lesson 5

Logic's Cycle Mode

Create a new Logic project and title it Lesson 5 and add a software instrument of your choice.

We are now going to do a little more work with Logic's
Cycle mode:

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.19.47 AM
Cycle Mode (in yellow)

There are two ways to activate
Cycle mode in Logic:

Use your mouse to select the
Cycle mode icon.

Type
/ on your numeric keypad on your computer keyboard.

Once you have selected
Cycle mode, you will see a yellow line appear on the ruler at the top of the Arrange window on Logic.


Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.21.46 AM
Cycle mode appearing at the top of the Arrange window.

When
Cycle is on

You can't record beyond the
right locator.

You can hit the
0 on your keyboard to return to the left locator or the beginning of your cycle.

You actually have set up a loop that will keep repeating. You can also record multiple takes over that loop if you are in record mode.


Takes

When you are in Cycle mode, you can record multiple takes on the same track. This is especially useful when you want to get the best possible performance. You can record several takes, and chose the best one.

Every time your record a
Take, you are adding layers on top of a single track. You can click and drag the top most take into other audio tracks so that you can compare your takes.

Setting Up Takes

Go to the Record pull down menu and select Recording Settings...

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.24.09 AM


You will now see the following dialog box:


Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.24.18 AM
Project Settings dialog box


Select Create take folders


Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.28.28 AM

Close the dialog box.

Set your locators in
Cycle Mode for four bars.

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.21.46 AM

Click on the Metronome if you want a count in and select the track to record on. Make sure the record button is selected

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.30.54 AM
Cycle mode, count in and metronome selected.


Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.31.05 AM
Software track set for recording.

Start recording! Do two or three different takes.

After you have completed your recording, notice that you have a
down arrow located at the left side of the region with the number of takes that you recorded.

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.34.05 AM

If you click on the
down arrow you will see your different takes.


Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.34.12 AM
My takes on my Instrument track

Click on the
Editors icon Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.40.00 AM

Select
Piano Roll Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.40.07 AM



Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.40.13 AM
Piano Roll region.

You can also view your piano takes in the score editor by selecting
Score in the bottom menu.

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.42.00 AM

You will then see the following:

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.42.18 AM
Score View of a MIDI take

To view a brief tutorial on creating Takes, click on the following link:


Clip 6


Logic Project 6:

Create a new Logic Project and record at least 3 takes using cycle record and the Takes Folder.



Step Time Recording In Logic

Step time recording is a method for recording MIDI (software instrument) tracks without having to play with a click-track in real time. It is especially useful for recording difficult passages that you could not perform in real time.

The step-time method that I am going to show you involves entering notes in the
Score or Piano Roll editors by clicking in a note using the Pencil Tool.

Note:
when you use this method you are going to have to edit the MIDI data so that your performance will have a more "human" feel. This will also be addressed in the following pages.

Create a new Logic Project titled
Lesson 7.

Add a new Software Instrument track using the acoustic piano patch titled Bosendorfer Piano Studio

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.58.07 AM

Hit the esc key on your keyboard and select the Pencil Tool

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 3.58.43 AM

Click one on the piano track with the pencil tool of measure 2 (this is where we are going to start our step entry. You should now see a starting bar.

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.01.58 AM
Click on the piano track measure 2 to get a starting bar.

Hit the
esc key on your keyboard and select the Pointer Tool.

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.02.37 AM

Now hold your mouse over the lower right hand side of the starting bar and the cursor will turn into a drag left-right icon. Drag to the right and expand your starting bar to a full four measures.

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.03.42 AM
Four measure starting bar


Type
P to open the Piano Editor and make sure that the MIDI In Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.06.19 AM button is showing red (indicating MIDI In) and ready for your MIDI keyboard, which we can assume is on and ready to go.


Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.05.40 AM
Piano Roll with MIDI In enabled.

Make sure your
Cycle bar starts in measure 2 and that your play head starts there as well.

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.09.07 AM
Cycle starting in measure 2 with play-head on measure 2 as well.

Go to the
Window pull down menu at the top of the Logic screen and select Step Input Keyboard

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.12.57 AM
Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.13.12 AM


You will now see the Step Input Keyboard appear in Logic's arrange window.

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.13.21 AM
Logic's step input keyboard


With you mouse, click on the rhythm that you want to enter. For this tutorial let's select eighth notes.

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.15.23 AM Selecting Eighth Notes

Now play your MIDI keyboard and enter in a full measure of eighth notes.

You will now see your notes appearing in your
piano roll window

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.16.26 AM
My string of MIDI eighth notes.

If you play back your sequence starting in measure two, you will now hear a perfect string of eighth notes.

To enter
Rests, select the note value that you want to enter a rest, and then click on the Sustain Inserted Notes icon to insert a rest.

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.17.24 AM Sustain Inserted Notes icon.

You will now see the play head move ahead an leave an empty space.

To enter
Dotted Notes, select the note value that you want and then select the dot.

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.18.27 AM
Entering a dotted Quarter note.

To enter a
triplet, select the note value and then click on the 3 button.

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.19.05 AM
Entering eighth note triplet figures

To enter
Chords, select the note value and then the chord icon.

Screen Shot 2014-01-30 at 4.19.53 AM Entering half-note chords.


Logic Project 7:

Create a new Logic Project and enter in the following melody using a piano software instrument.

Screen shot 2012-05-21 at 7.40.12 PM



Dynamics and Velocity

When you are using the
Step Input Keyboard to enter notes by Step Recording you may have noticed that you can select a dynamic marking when you are entering your notes.

Screen shot 2012-05-21 at 7.47.39 PM

This is a nice feature, but it really does not give you a wide range of dynamic markings or note velocities when you are entering as passage in this manner.

Dynamics in MIDI are measured by
Velocity, which is on a scale of 0-127 or 1-128, depending on which scale your program uses. Also some of the Sample Libraries use a specific velocity to trigger a dynamic range. For instance, the original version of Vienna Strings used a velocity range of 0-49 to trigger samples that played at the mp dynamic level. Always read the owner's manual that comes with any sample library that you purchase. You may find that velocity ranges differ quite a bit for specific dynamic samples.

Create a new Project and title it
Velocity. Wow! Finally, a new name!

Start in measure 2 and use the step record method to enter in an ascending and descending C Major Scale (see below) with a dynamic marking of mf.

Screen shot 2012-05-21 at 7.47.48 PM


Screen shot 2012-05-21 at 7.48.27 PM
Our ascending and descending C Major scale.

When you are finished your piano roll should look as follows:

Screen shot 2012-05-21 at 7.48.35 PM
C Major scale in the piano roll in Logic.

If you play it back you will notice, that it is not all that "human" like. All the velocities are the same!

Editing Velocities In Logic

Make sure that your track is selected by clicking on it

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 4.10.48 AM

Look at the
Piano Roll view of your scale (type P on your computer keyboard.

Locate the
Hyper Edit icon on the upper left hand side of the Piano Roll Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 3.48.42 AM and click on it.

You will now see the following:

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 3.50.20 AM
Piano roll with Hyper Edit

To
change the velocity of a note: hit the esc key on your computer keyboard and select the Velocity Tool.

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 3.51.19 AM

Click and hold on a note in the Piano Roll (not the Hyper edit) and drag your mouse up and down. You will now notice that the velocity is changing in the Hyper Edit window.

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 3.52.05 AM
Changing Velocity

Experiment with changing velocities on different notes in the scale and playback the sequence. Notice the volume changes of different notes in the scale!

Editing Volume, Expression, and Mod Wheel Data Using Logic's Hyper Edit Window

Make sure that you have extended the
Edit widow upward by grabbing the top bar of the Edit window and extending it upward.


Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 3.52.59 AM
Extended Edit Window

Click on the
View pull down menu on the left-hand side of the window and you will see the following:

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 3.53.58 AM

For this exercise we are going to select MIDI Draw then Volume. Notice that a Volume Line will now appear in your Edit Window.

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 3.56.14 AM
Volume Line in Edit Window

Hit
esc on your keyboard and select the Pencil Tool

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 3.56.51 AM

Click on the beginning of the Volume Line in the Hyper Edit window and draw in your desired volume curve using the Pencil Tool. If you make a mistake, select the Eraser Tool to correct your error. You can also use the Finger Tool for more curved lines, or the Pointer Tool for straight lines. Make large volume changes for this exercise as in the screen shot below:

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 3.57.34 AM
Drawing in Volume with the pencil tool in Hyper Edit.

Now playback your scale and hear your volume changes!

To see your automated volume change in the
Mix Window of Logic, go to the Window pull down menu and select Open Mixer

Or type
Command 2 on your computer keyboard.

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 3.58.45 AM



You will now see the Mixer Window in Logic:


Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 4.00.24 AM
Logic's Mixer Window

Playback your scale and notice the fader for your piano start to move up and down to reflect the volume changes that you enter using the
Pencil Tool in Hyper Edit.

Close the
Mixer Window by clicking on the far left circle at the top of the Mixer Window.

Note:
You can edit any of the parameters that appear in the Hyper Edit pull down arrow in this manner!


To view a brief tutorial on using Hyper Edit in Logic, click on the following link:

Clip 8

Using The Score Editor To Edit Volume

For those of you who prefer to work with notation instead of the
Piano Roll, you can use Logic's Score Editor to edit volume as well.

Keep your scale project open and erase all of our volume info that we just entered. You can do this with the
Erase Tool or by repeatedly hitting the command-Z (undo) key command on your computer keyboard.

The arrange window should look as follows:

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 4.13.51 AM
Arrange window in Piano Roll View

Now click on the
Score icon at the bottom of Logic's window

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 4.14.23 AM

You will now see the following window:

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 4.14.41 AM
Logic's Score window.

You will now notice the
Inspector window that appears on the left-hand side of the screen.


From the
View pull down menu in the Score Widow, select MIDI Draw and then Volume.

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 4.26.21 PM



You will now see the volume bar appear in the Hyper Draw window and just like the methods described above, you can enter a volume envelope, but in this case you can do it while viewing the music notation.

I selected the
pencil tool and entered the following dynamic envelope pretty much following the contour of the scale.

Screen Shot 2014-01-31 at 4.28.14 PM
My volume envelope.

To view a brief tutorial on using Hyper Edit in the Score window in Logic, click on the following link:

Clip 9


Logic Project 8:

Create a new Logic Project and enter in a melody using any software instrument. Create a dynamic envelope using the Pencil tool in the Hyper Draw window.




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Lesson 6

Logic's Software Instrument Inspector
 
Create a new Logic project and title it
Lesson 6 and add a software instrument track.
 
Locate the
Input/Output section of your software track in the Inspector Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 3.46.32 AM and click on the empty slot directly below the I/O
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 3.44.03 AM
Select
ES2 Hybrid Synth from the pull down menu by single clicking on the Input/Output (E-Piano) and navigate through the following:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 3.49.55 AM

The
ES2 Hybrid Synth will now appear in your library section on the left hand side of the screen:

Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 3.51.39 AM

 
Double click on the
Input/Output Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 3.53.36 AM You will now see the ES2 Software Instrument.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 3.53.45 AM
ES2 Hybrid Synth
 
You can close the
ES2 window by clicking on the X in the upper left-hand side of the window.
 
To open it again, single click on the
ES2 Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 3.56.13 AM name in the Channel track.

 Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 3.56.53 AM

Locate the
Factory Default pull down menu in the ES2 window and select
Synth Keyboards-Hybrid Electric Piano

 Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 3.59.16 AM

Play your MIDI keyboard. You should now hear the
Hybrid Electric Piano patch from the ES2. If you play your keyboard hard, you may notice it clipping.
 
image008
The ES2 clipping (not good)
 
We are now going to change the volume output directly from the
ES2. Locate the Volume control on the ES2 in the lower right-hand corner of the window. Grab the volume knob and lower the volume output.
image009 Volume Control

You may have to experiment several times before you get a good strong volume that is not clipping. Remember, when you are clipping in the digital world, you will be recording distortion and noise. Always check you output levels!
 
The Track Parameters
 
Click on the triangle next to the instrument name in the left-hand
Inspector column to reveal the track parameters for our newly created software instrument.
 
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.02.43 AM
 
MIDI Channel All: Use the up/down arrows to select a MIDI channel for instance of the same instrument that you add. If it is set to All it will sound on all 16 MIDI Channels. It is best the set this to a single channel, that way you can add up to 16 instances of the same instrument sounding on independent MIDI channels.
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.05.30 AM

 
Value as: DB: Logic will express volume information as MIDI values 0-127 or in decibels. The default is decibels.
 
Transposition raises or lowers the pitch to scale:
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.08.09 AM

To change octaves up/down quickly, click and hold on the up/down triangles.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.04.33 AM

 
Velocity This is especially useful to quickly edit a note's velocity. Make sure that you have recorded something on the ES2 track.
Make sure your recorded track is highlighted by clicking on and selecting it:
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.10.33 AM

Type
command-0 on your computer keyboard, and you will see the following window appear:

 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.10.43 AM

From this window, simply click on a velocity value to change it. You can also edit individual notes as well.
 
The Region Parameter Box
 
Locate the box at the top of the
Instrument Inspector track window:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.14.10 AM
The Region Parameter Box
 
Quantize: Click and Hold your mouse on the off and you will see the Quantize pull down window:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.15.07 AM

 
This allows you to set a
Quantize value when you are recording. This is especially useful for entering percussion parts, where you want the timing to be locked in.
 
For an explanation of
Quantize, click on the link below:
 
Quantize
 
Experiment with the different Quantize values when you are recording.
 
Loop: If you check this box, Logic will loop a region.
 
Click on the region that you want to loop so that it is highlighted
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.17.03 AM

Check the box next to
loop or type L on your computer keyboard and the region will now be Looped.
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.17.36 AM
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.16.24 AM
Looped Region
 
Transposition this is the same concept as covered above, but in this case your transposition will affect tracks that are already recorded. Make sure that you click on the region that you want to transpose, and then select the transposition.
 
Velocity: This was covered above, but in this case, positive values ADD to whatever you have already recorded and negative values subtract from the velocities that you have already recorded.
 
Dynamics: This is very similar to a compressor, except that it is working with differences in MIDI velocity. Place your cursor on the up/down triangles and hold it there. You will now see the following:

 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.18.32 AM
Values above 100% expand the dynamics and increase the differences between loud and soft. Values below 100% compress the dynamics and reduce the differences in velocity. If you select
Fix, you can specify a single velocity for the track selected.
 
Experiment with the different settings and listen!!!
 
Gate Time: This affects note duration and length. Click on the up and down arrows located to the right of Gate Time:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.19.21 AM
 
Anything below 100% will shorten a notes length. Anything above 100% will lengthen a notes length. This is especially useful on some legato sting patches as it will make the transition between notes smoother by lengthening the note values.
 
Delay works just like the delay setting in the Instrument Parameter Box. The units for Delay are in ticks:

Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.20.06 AM
 
3, 840 ticks for a whole note delay
 
960 ticks for a quarter note delay
 
240 ticks for a sixteenth note delay
 
120 ticks for a thirty-second note delay
 
60 ticks for a sixty-fourth note delay
 
You really need to experiment with the different settings to find out which will work best for a particular sound or instrument. Take notes and write down those settings that work best for you.
 

Working With Automation
 
One of Logic's main features is that it allows you to create an
automated mix. This is especially useful for creating professional mixes and having the ability to change audio effects in real time. In the past, the audio engineer would be assigned this task, but in today's world, it is now required that composers have the ability to do this so they can present a final mix to a client.
 
Make sure that your
Hybrid Electric Piano patch is loaded from the lessons above and also make sure that you have recorded something.
 
Viewing Track Automation
 
There are two methods of viewing
Track Automation in Logic:
 
Click on the
Automation icon at the top of the Arrange Window in Logic
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.23.01 AM The Show/Hide Automation icon.

 
Or, simply type the letter
A on your computer keyboard.
 
You will now see the following:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.23.55 AM

 
Notice that you now have a line appearing on the track with
0.00 dB This indicates your track volume.
 
You also have the
Volume parameter appearing directly below the software instrument name.
 
If you hold your mouse on
Volume you will see the following pull down menu:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.24.40 AM

 
If you select
Main from the menu you will see a new set of parameters.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-01 at 4.25.46 AM

 
These allow you to select
MIDI Volume, Pan, Solo and Mute. You can then use the Pencil Tool to draw in your automation.
 
If you need to edit
Velocity you will need to do it in the Piano Roll Editor.
 
If you click on the
1 ES2 pull down menu you will now see several parameters that you can edit directly in the ES2 Software Instrument.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-03 at 3.51.12 AM
 
There are so many effects that you can automate in each software instrument that it would take a separate course just to go through each instrument and effect. Experiment and take notes of any setting that you like. 
 
Automating Track Volume
 
Keep the main automation setting on
Volume. Click on the volume line to create a node. Notice that the line now turns yellow.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-03 at 3.52.25 AM
 
If you place your cursor and click and hold on the
node you just created, you can now drag the node up and down to create a volume change.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-03 at 3.53.01 AM
 
Notice that
Read now appears in green in the track name menu and the track slider.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-03 at 3.54.12 AM
Read in Track menu
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-03 at 3.53.37 AM
Read in track slider.
 
This is telling us that Logic will now
read your automation. Hit the space bar on your computer keyboard to play back your MIDI track and notice the track slider moving. You have now created volume automation for this track!
 
Showing The Mixer Window
 
If you type
Command 2 on your computer keyboard or go to the Window pull down menu in Logic and select Mixer, you will now see Logic's Mixer Window.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-03 at 3.54.55 AM
 
Play back your sequence and watch the slider on your
Hybrid Electric Piano track.
 
To view a brief tutorial on creating Volume Automation in Logic X, click on the following link:
 
 
Clip 10
  
Logic Project 9:

Create a new Logic Project and and use an audio loop (Blue) or one of your own audio recordings. Have at least two audio tracks and put in some volume automation.

Setting Up MIDI and Audio Devices
 
Go to your
Applications folder on your Mac and then Utilities-Audio MIDI Setup.
 
I usually place this in my Dock for easy access.
 
image030
Audio MIDI Setup in my Dock
 
Launch the program and you will now see the following window:
 
image032
Note: This is the MIDI window in the Audio/MIDI setup.
 
To view both the Audio and MIDI windows, go to the
Window pull down menu at the top of your Finder and select Show Audio Window.
 
You will now see both the Audio and MIDI Windows on your screen.
 
Let's start with the MIDI window (shown above). This will show any MIDI device that you have connected to your Mac. The lighter colored devices indicate that the device is not currently connected. If you notice, the only device that is currently connected to my Mac is the
M Audio Keyrig 25.
 
Rather than write all the steps out, I have prepared two short video on setting up your MIDI interfaces.

 
Video 1

Video 2
 
Setting Up An Audio Interface
 
While Logic will allow you to record and listen to your audio through your Mac's built in microphone and speakers, it is usually best to purchase an
Audio Interface to add to your Mac.
 
There are hundreds of good interfaces on the market in a variety of price ranges and quality. Research them, read reviews, and find one that best fits your price range and sound needs.
 
I have been very happy with the Apogee Ensemble, but it is not cheap! Apogee also makes lower-end audio interfaces that sound great and are designed to work directly with a Mac.
 
To view a brief tutorial on setting up an Audio Interface on a Mac, click on the following link:
 
 
Clip 11

 
 
Setting Up an External MIDI Instrument in Logic X
 
I am now going to show you how to add an
External MIDI Instrument in Logic X. This tutorial assumes that you have an external MIDI instrument hooked up to Logic via your MIDI or USB interface.
 
If you don't have an external MID instrument hooked up to Logic. feel free to skip ahead to Lesson 9
 
Open a new Logic Project and name it anything you want.
 
When you launch the program, create a single
Software Instrument track, but don't select the Open Library box. I know, you may ask, why don’t you select External MIDI
for our track? Trust me, this is MUCH easier!
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-03 at 4.20.12 AM

 
Locate the
Instrument input in your channel strip and click on it.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-03 at 4.20.28 AM

 
From the pull down menu, select
External Instrument, Stereo.

Screen Shot 2014-02-03 at 4.20.39 AM

 
You will now see the following menu appear in the upper left hand side of your screen.

 
Screen Shot 2014-02-03 at 4.17.18 AM

Select your MIDI channel and and Input from this menu.

You can now record enable the track and hear your external MIDI instrument.

To Name your instrument, double click on the track name.
Screen Shot 2014-02-03 at 4.21.05 AM

You may then type in the new name of your external MIDI track.

Screen Shot 2014-02-03 at 4.21.23 AM

It is that easy!

 


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Lesson 7

Working With AU Software Instruments
 
Logic also allows you to use third party software instruments such as the Kontakt Sampler or Garritan virtual orchestra. There are a whole host of third party software instruments on the market. These are called Instrument Plug-ins and are accessed through something called
Audio Units or AU Instruments.
 
This tutorial is assuming that you have a third party AU instrument installed on your Mac. We are going to be using Garritan Instant Orchestra for this tutorial, but the concepts are the same for any AU installed software instrument. Garritan Instant Orchestra is installed on all of the PSU Recording Studio Computers.
 
Create a new Logic project and title it
Lesson 7 and add a software instrument. Since we are also going to set this up as a Multitimbral instrument make sure that you set it up a follows.

 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.37.30 AM

 
Make sure that you select
Software Instrument and the Multi-timbral box and that you have 4 MIDI tracks. Also make sure that you don’t select the Open Library
box.
 
Your Arrange window should look as follows:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.39.03 AM
 
We are now going to add an
AU instrument to Inst 1. Click on the top most track to select it.

Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.40.05 AM
 
Go to the
Instrument icon Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.40.15 AM for Inst 1 and from the pull down menu select Au Instruments.
 
In my case I am going to select
Garritan.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.41.53 AM

 
I will now see the
Garritan user interface pop up. In Inst 1 I am loading the Full Woodwinds Unison patch.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.44.27 AM
 
I am now going to double click on the
Inst 1 track name to change the title
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.45.11 AM

I am changing the title of the track to
Full Winds Unison

 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.45.27 AM

 
Because we set our Software Instrument up in Multi-timbral mode, all Software instrument tracks have the
Garritan Aria Player plug-in loaded into the Instrument slot of
all of our newly created tracks.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.50.29 AM

 
I can now go through and load in different sounds into the
Aria Player:

Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.49.33 AM

I then label each new track as follows:


 Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.49.26 AM

To make life easier, we should also rename the tracks in Inspector. Click on the first track in the
Arrange Window to highlight it.
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.55.45 AM



Notice the column to the far left. The instrument is still labeled
Inst 1


 Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.55.52 AM

Click on the
Track: Inst 1
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.54.05 AM

I am changing the name to Full Winds Unision


Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.55.45 AM

If you now open the track info in the Inspector you will see that Logic has automatically assigned each track to a
different MIDI channel.


Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 3.59.35 AM

Because we created 4 Multi-Timbral software instruments, Logic will automatically number the MIDI channels 1-4 so each sound
will be independent.


If you own any third part AU plug-in sounds, experiment with setting up multi-timbral software instrument tracks.
 
To view a brief tutorial on setting up an external Multitimbral Instrument, click on the following link:
 
 
Clip 13
 
 
 
Logic Project 10:
 
Create a new Logic Project and set up at least 4 Multi-timbral software tracks using Garritan Instant Orchestra. Label your tracks. Load in 4 different instruments/patches from Garritan.

 
 
Region MIDI Editing
 
This tutorial takes you through some basic MIDI editing procedures in Logic.
 
Create a new Logic project with a software instrument and record at least 8 measures. For this example I am going to record a simple C major scale.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 4.13.59 AM
 
Delete
 
This one is simple. Click on the region that you recorded in the
Arrange window so that it is highlighted and then hit the delete key on your computer keyboard. The region is now gone.
 
Use
command Z to undo your delete.
 
Move

 
You can move a region along the same track or up and down to other tracks by simply grabbing the region with your mouse and sliding it around the
Arrange window.
 
Cut
 
This is a little different than
delete.
 
I am going to have you open the
Score Editor because you can see the cut a little easier by viewing the written notation.
 
Double Click on the recorded MIDI region, you will now see the
Piano Roll window.

 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 4.17.26 AM

 
Select the
Score Editor by clicking on the Score icon located at the bottom of the Arrange Window.

 Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 4.14.56 AM


You will now see a notated version of your track.

Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 4.17.57 AM
 
In this case I want to make a cut in measure 3 so I am setting up my
Cycle region to measure 3 and moving my playhead to measure 3.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 4.18.53 AM
 
At the top left hand side of the
Arrange window are several icons.
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 4.21.27 AM

Select the
Tool Bar icon Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 4.21.43 AM to display the Tool Bar across the top of the Arrange Window

Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 4.21.50 AM

Make sure that your MIDI track region is selected by clicking on it:


Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 4.25.30 AM

Click on the
Split by Playhead
 Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 4.24.04 AM

You may get the following message:

Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 4.25.10 AM

Select
Split


Notice that measure 3 has now been removed. You can easily see this in the
Score view.
 
Use
command Z to undo your delete.
 
 
Copy/Paste
 
I am now going to show you two ways to copy/paste in the arrange window using MIDI regions.
 
Click on the region that you want to copy by highlighting it.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 8.09.40 AM

 
Hold down the
option key on your computer keyboard, grab the region with your mouse, and slide it to where you want a copy to appear. In this case I just slid it over to the next open measure creating an exact duplicate of my first MIDI region.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 8.09.57 AM

 
For the second method, click on the region you want to copy so that it is highlighted.
 
Type
command C on your computer keyboard for copy.
 
Move the
Playhead to where you want to paste your duplicate track.
 
Type
command V on your computer keyboard for paste.

Make sure that you try both methods.
 
Repeat
 
When you repeat a region, you are defining how many times you want that region to repeat. This is different from a loop, where the repeat is ongoing with no end in sight!
 
Click on the region to highlight it.

Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 8.09.40 AM
 
Type
command R on your computer keyboard and you will now see the following dialog box:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 8.11.47 AM
 
Type in the
Number of Copies that you want for a repeat and Logic will automatically create that number of repeats.
 
Type
Command Z to undo.
 
Here is another way to create a repeat.
 
Click on the
Cycle bar so that your region is within your cycle.

Also make sure that your region is highlighted.
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 8.12.41 AM
 
Click on the
Repeat Section icon located at the top of the Arrange window.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 8.12.53 AM
 
 
You will now have created a repeat.
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 8.13.09 AM

 
Type
Command Z to undo.
 
Glue
 
Glue allows you to put a group of Regions together to create a single Region.
As you can see below, I have a series of shorter regions in my
Arrange window.
 
image021
 
Select the regions that you want to glue together by
shift clicking on them so that they are highlighted.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 8.16.51 AM

 
Hit the
esc key on your computer keyboard and select the Glue Tool.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 8.16.01 AM
 
Click on the first highlighted region and the
Glue tool will now turn the highlighted mini regions into one larger region.

 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 8.17.07 AM

 
Join Regions
 
This works a little differently than the
Glue tool in that you are merging all of the regions in a track into a single region. Why do this? Some folks find it easier to work on a single region rather than a series of short regions. And if you want to work in the Score Editor, it is much easier to view a single region rather than a series of short regions.
 
This process is similar to the
Glue tool.
 
Shift-Click to select all the regions in a track, and then click on the Join Regions icon to merge all the regions together.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 8.19.09 AM
 
Done!
 
Editing Velocity
 
Velocity is measured by how hard you strike a key on your piano keyboard. It is measured from 0-127. You can think of velocity as volume, especially when you are using it to shape a musical phrase.
 
A rough dynamic breakdown of velocity (0-127) is as follows:
 
p = 0-55
 
mp = 56-88
 
mf = 89-108
 
f = 109-127
 
Remember that the above values are subjective in that the patch (sound) that you are using may not respond to the above values. For example, a xylophone patch will not be as velocity sensitive as a violin patch.
 
Velocity Layers
 
When you edit velocity in Logic, you have several choices, we are going to go over some of them.
 
Create a new piano software track in logic and record the following C Major Scale:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 8.22.40 AM

 
The Event List
 
The
Event List allows you to edit velocities using a list.
Click on the first icon (the Event List) located on the upper right hand side of the arrange window
Screen Shot 2014-02-04 at 8.28.10 AM

You will now see the following window:
Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 3.35.17 AM

 For this exercise we are going to create a
Crescendo using the Event List.
Make sure that your MIDI track is highlighted by clicking on it:
Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 3.37.13 AM

Make sure that you have the
Event Tab and Notes are selected. You will now see the following window:

Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 3.42.25 AM


From the Functions pull down menu select MIDI Transform then Fixed Velocity

Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 3.40.56 AM


You will now see the following window:
 

 Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 3.46.05 AM

From the
Presets pull down menu select Crescendo

Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 3.46.42 AM



You will now see the following window


 
Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 3.46.56 AM

The window below tells us that our crescendo will start in Measure 1 and end in Measure 5

Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 3.51.50 AM

The next window allows us to determine the values for our Crescendo. Remember that MIDI Velocity is measured from 1-127
With 1 being the softest value and 127 being the loudest perceived volume.

I am setting my crescendo with the following values:



Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 3.47.11 AM


Click
Select and Operate

 
Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 3.47.17 AM

Play back your scale and you will now hear a crescendo!

You may also edit individual note’s velocity by double-clicking the velocity number
in the
Event List. You will also hear the note’s velocity

Screen Shot 2014-02-06 at 9.46.20 AM


Simply type in a new number.


Screen Shot 2014-02-06 at 9.46.33 AM



The
Event List is also handy if you just want to edit certain parameters of your MIDI performance

Say, for instance, that you have mod wheel info that you want to edit, and not note information.

Simply select
Controller in the Event List and logic will only display your Controller info for editing.


Screen Shot 2014-02-06 at 9.50.31 AM




To view a tutorial on creating a crescendo using the Event List click on the following link:

Creating a Crescendo in the Event List

The Step Editor
 
This is another method for editing
Velocity.
 
Click on your MIDI region so that it is highlighted.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 3.37.13 AM
 
Hit
P on your computer keyboard and select the Step Editor icon.


 
Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 4.08.40 AM

 
Scroll down until you see the
All Velocities function. You will now see the following window:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 4.12.06 AM



You can grab a single bar and move it up or down to change a velocity of a single note. You will also hear the volume of the note change as you are moving the bar up and down.


 Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 4.14.14 AM
Try creating a crescendo using the above method.

 
Let's look at some of the
Inspector attributes:
 
Pan Width: Note Length allows you to set how wide the pitches are  in the bar chart so that editing can be easier.
 
image040
 
Grid 1/16th Note allows you change the resolution of the grid.
 
Length allows you to edit note length.
 
Pitch allows you to change a note's pitch.'
 
To change the velocity of a single note, make sure that the velocity bars are grayed out, by clicking above or below them. Select the
Velocity Bar by clicking on it and move the bar up or down to change the velocity.
 
image041
 
If you want to raise or lower the velocity of all the bars, click on
All Velocities to select all the bars and grab the first bar and move all of the bars up and down.
 
Editing Velocity In The Score Editor
 
This is another method of editing velocity.
 
Make sure that your MIDI region is selected by clicking on it.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 3.37.13 AM
 
Open the
Score Editor by clicking on the icon.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-06 at 9.52.45 AM

 
You will now see your scale in notation form:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-06 at 9.53.30 AM
 
In the
Score Editor window notice the icons located in the upper right hand side of the window.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-06 at 9.54.01 AM
 
Click on the arrow icon (first one) and select the
Velocity Tool.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-06 at 9.54.27 AM

 
Notice that your mouse pointer will now turn to a
v.
 
Click on a note and hold the mouse down while moving the mouse up or down. You will see the note turn green indicating that velocity is being changed.

Screen Shot 2014-02-06 at 9.54.46 AM
 
Make sure that you deselect the
Velocity Tool and return to the Pointer Tool when you leave the Score Editor. An easy way to do this is to hit the esc key twice on your
computer keyboard.
 
Logic Project 11:
 
Create a new Logic Project and record the following with a piano sound. Make sure that your velocities (volume) match the notation.

 
image048




Editing MIDI Using The Piano Roll
 
This is where I spend most of my time editing my recorded tracks.
Hopefully, you still have your C Major scale from the tutorial above. If not, create a duplicate.
 
To enter the
Piano Roll highlight your MIDI region and double click your mouse.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 3.37.13 AM
 
Select
Piano Roll from the bottom icons in the Arrange Window
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-06 at 9.58.42 AM
 
You will now see your C Major scale recording in the piano roll.

Screen Shot 2014-02-06 at 9.59.26 AM

 
Note: you may have to use the slider bar located on the right-hand side of the
Piano Roll window to scroll down or up to find your MIDI notes.
 
To make your notes larger in the
Piano Roll window use the slider that in on the right hand side of the Piano Roll window.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-06 at 10.01.07 AM
 
 
Moving Notes (MIDI Blocks) Around
 
To move a note around (change the pitch or position) in the
Piano Roll, simply grab the note block with your mouse and move it around the grid.
 
Note: To change the grid in the
Piano Roll, locate the Snap pull down menu located at the top of the Piano Roll.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-06 at 10.01.54 AM
 
You have the following choices for grid selection:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-06 at 10.02.22 AM
 
Experiment with different grid settings to see how they react.
 
Also, when you click on a note, you will hear the note as you click on it.
 
Changing The Length Of A Note
 
To Lengthen or Shorten the duration of a note, simply place your mouse cursor to the left or right hand side of a note block. Your cursor will now change to left/right arrows. Grab the note block and lengthen or shorten the note.
 
Copy And Paste And Delete
 
You May also copy a note by selecting it, copying it, and then pasting it into the piano roll. You may then move the note block to your desired position. To
Delete a note, select it and hit delete on your computer keyboard.
In our next lesson, we are going to turn Software Instruments and Loops into Audio.

 

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Lesson 8

 

Changing Software Instruments And Loops To Audio
 
Up to this point we have been working with MIDI data only, not audio. Logic allows you to export an entire project as an MP3, Wave, or AIF file. You can also covert a single Software Instrument track into an audio file.
 
Bouncing A Project
 
Let's start by bouncing an entire Logic project down to a stereo file. This is a simple way to export your project to an MP3, WAV, or AIF file.
 
Open up your C Major scale project from the last lesson. If you have deleted it, simply recreate it again.
 
I am going to add a simple drum loop to this project, so that I will have two MIDI tracks (I am using a MIDI loop rather than an audio loop). My
Arrange window looks as follows:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-07 at 4.18.22 AM
 
Yes, this is a simple Logic project, but it will serve as an easy example on how to bounce a project down to a stereo file.
 
Once you are happy with your mix, you can now bounce the entire Logic project down to a stereo file.

Set your
Cycle from your song start to your song end. This will tell logic when to start and stop the bounce. In this case, it is short!

Screen Shot 2014-02-07 at 4.18.59 AM



Customize Toolbar

I like to have my Bounce icon located in my Toolbar.

Note, if your Toolbar is not showing click on the Toolbar icon (third from the right) to show your Toolbar

Screen Shot 2014-02-07 at 4.24.16 AM

To customize your Toolbar, Control-Click on the Toolbar. You will now see the following icon.


Screen Shot 2014-02-07 at 4.21.35 AM Click on it and you will now see the Customize Toolbar edit window


Select
Bounce and click OK


Screen Shot 2014-02-07 at 4.21.45 AM


 The Bounce icon will now appear in your Toolbar
Screen Shot 2014-02-07 at 4.21.59 AM

Click on the
Bounce icon in your Toolbar or go to File, Bounce, Project or Selection. Or use the keyboard command Command B

Screen Shot 2014-02-07 at 4.29.23 AM

 

You will now see the following dialog box:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-07 at 4.32.08 AM

Logic provides you with a variety of methods to bounce your projects. I prefer the above settings. This will give me an
Interleaved Stereo AIFF file.

Wav Files

The Wav format is a PC file format, but can also be read my Macs. I prefer this method for film scoring projects since Wav Files are Timed Stamped.
I will cover this more later in the tutorial when I introduce film scoring techniques. Basically this means that when you import a Wav File into Logic it will contain
SMPTE info to place the file in the correct location on your movie.

Bouncing As A WAV File


To bounce as a Wav File select the following settings:



Screen Shot 2014-02-10 at 3.59.46 AM


Feel free to experiment with the different bounce settings.
 
I am going to Bounce my short piece as a
Wav file.
Once I choose the settings in the Bounce Window. I then click Screen Shot 2014-02-10 at 4.06.40 AM

You will then see the following dialog box:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-10 at 4.06.24 AM
 
Click on
Bounce again. 
 
Logic will now bounce your project down to a stereo
Wav file located in your Bounces Folder in your Logic Project Folder
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-10 at 4.09.11 AM
 
A very easy and straightforward process!
 
Bouncing A Pre-Recorded MIDI Track
 
For this next example I am going to show you how to bounce individual Software Tracks that you have already recorded, but want to turn into audio tracks.
 
Why would you want to do this? A lot of time when I deliver a project to a client, they want audio stems of each track. This is one method of changing a Software Instrument track into an audio track. I will also show you another method that you can do on the fly!
 
Let's start by turning our piano track into an audio track.
 
Solo the piano track by clicking on the s button next to the track name in the Arrange Window.

 Screen Shot 2014-02-10 at 4.10.15 AM

 
By doing this, Logic will only play the piano track.
 
My piano track is only four measures so set up the
Cycle region for four measures.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-10 at 4.10.55 AM

 
This way we are not recording empty measures that take up valuable audio space in a project.
 
Click on the
Bounce Regions icon located in the Toolbar Window.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-10 at 4.11.27 AM

 
You will now see the
Bounce Regions In Place dialog box. But this time note the changes that I have made:

 Screen Shot 2014-02-10 at 4.14.47 AM
I have named the track
Piano 
Click
OK and notice that the Piano Audio track has been added to your Tracks.

Screen Shot 2014-02-10 at 4.15.01 AM

The
Piano Audio has also been added to the Audio Files in your Logic Project. Select the Browser Icon located in the upper right hand corner of the Arrange window.
Screen Shot 2014-02-10 at 4.18.31 AM

You will now see your piano audio track:


Screen Shot 2014-02-10 at 4.18.36 AM

You can also drag this track to your arrange window by clicking on the
Piano Audio name and dragging it on to the Arrange Window:


 You can now delete the MIDI piano track if you so desire. You may also add effects, etc to your newly created piano audio track.
 
To view a brief tutorial on bouncing a MIDI track to audio, click on the following link:
 
Clip 14
 
Signal Flow In Logic
 
Up to this point we have only been routing our audio to
Out 1-2 in our Logic projects. For this tutorial we are going to be working with the Mixer in Logic.

First, let’s create a new project and add four
Audio Tracks and name them as follows:

Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 5.39.12 AM

 
There are two ways to bring up the mixer:
 
Type
X on your computer keyboard.
 
Click on the
Mixer icon at the top left hand side of the Arrange Window.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-11 at 4.01.56 AM

 
The
Mixer window looks just like a mixer in the "real" world. I have set up a short project for recording a drum set with four microphones.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 5.40.34 AM
 
You will also notice that all the audio outs are routed to
Out 1-2 or Stereo Out.
 

 Screen Shot 2014-02-11 at 4.04.25 AM
 

Adding A Bus
 
We are now going to change our audio output for our Drum Audio tracks. Instead of going to
Stereo Out we are going to set up a Bus to route our audio.

Make sure that you have
Aux selected in the track show window:
Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 5.41.39 AM

You may also notice two more icons:

Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 5.42.00 AM

The right icon allows you to view the mixer in
Narrow View (when you have a ton of tracks)

The left icon allows you to view the mixer in
Wide View when you don’t have a lot of tracks.
 
Let’s start with the piano. Under
I/O in the mixer track Kick on Stereo Out and select Bus 1
 Screen Shot 2014-02-11 at 4.24.20 AM
 
 
Notice that the
Stereo Out in the kick track now reads Bus 1.
 
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-11 at 4.27.37 AM

 
You will also notice that a
Bus 1 channel strip appears in the Mixer Window titled Aux 1 with its output set to Stereo Out.
 
Repeat the above process and set the
I/O to Bus 1 for all the tracks.

 
Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 5.45.50 AM

 
Adding A New Audio Track
 
We now need to add an audio track so that we can route our bus tracks into the audio track.

 Select the last track so that it is highlighted (I do this to save a step) The new audio track will now be inserted directly below the
Kabasa track.
Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 5.46.36 AM

 
Locate the
+ icon next to Global Tracks and click on it.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 5.46.25 AM


You will now see a familiar dialog box. Enter in the following: Notice that I have selected
Bus 1 (Aux 1) for my Input.
This will make more sense soon!
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 6.04.55 AM
 
Your
Arrange window should now look as follows:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 5.49.11 AM

You may have noticed that I have recorded some audio tracks. You may want to do the same. For this tutorial I just want you to understand basic signal flow.

 
 By enabling
Input Monitoring, it allows us to hear the audio before it reaches the Audio Out 1-2 so that we can determine if the signal is hot enough to record or too hot so that the signal is clipping.
 
To view your audio signal using
Input Monitoring, click on the first Audio FX slot in your audio track.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 5.54.49 AM

Select
Metering, Level Meter, and then Stereo or Mono depending on the type of audio track you have.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 5.54.35 AM
 
You will now see a
Level Meter for your audio 1 channel, allowing you to monitor the signal input.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 5.56.33 AM

When I play my sequence I can see the
Level Meter in action:
Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 5.56.45 AM


 
I strongly suggest that you insert a
Level Meter into each track so you can monitor the incoming audio signal.
 
This is what our
Mixer window should now look like:
 
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 6.08.25 AM
 

 
Notice that I have place the
Level Meter in my Mixer window for better monitoring of the audio signal.
 
Recording and Bussing Audio
 
We are now ready to record some audio!
 
If you were recording “live musicians”, you would use your level meters to view the levels and make sure that they were strong, but not clipping.
 
I have already recorded my mini drum section and now I want to mix it down into a single stereo track. We can do this via the bus setup that we have configured.

I am now going to label my newly created audio track
Drum Mix by double clicking on the track name in the mixer and changing the name.

 Screen Shot 2014-02-12 at 6.09.11 AM
 
You will now see your drum audio track in the
Mixer Window
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-13 at 8.29.12 AM

 
My goal is to make a stereo mix of my four percussion parts by bussing all the parts to a single track. To do this, first solo all the tracks that you want to bus into your
stereo mix track.

In this case I am going to solo all my percussion tracks. Now only the soloed tracks will sound. You do this by selecting the
S on the tracks:
Screen Shot 2014-02-13 at 8.32.27 AM

Notice that your audio regions are surrounded by a yellow line indicating that you are in solo mode.
 
Now play your sequence and check the
Level Meter. You may have to adjust the volume of the drum track using the fader on the drum track.
 
The picture below shows a fairly robust signal.
image039
 
Once you have set your
Level, rewind your sequence to the beginning.
 
Make sure that the
Metronome is turned off, especially if you are recording a MIDI track as the metronome will also be recorded.
 
Arm the
Drum Audio Track for recording by clicking on the R in the channel strip (it should start blinking)
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-13 at 8.37.48 AM

 
Hit the
* key on your extended keyboard or click on the Record button in the Transport window to begin recording.

 Screen Shot 2014-02-13 at 8.38.25 AM
Hit the
Spacebar to stop recording and the drum audio file should now appear in your Arrange Window.
 

 Screen Shot 2014-02-13 at 8.37.06 AM
In the screen shot above, I have muted all the percussion tracks so that I can hear my stereo percussion mix.

This is an easy way to set up several different drum mixes that can be mixed down to a stereo track.
 
While this method is somewhat slower than the
Bounce method described earlier in this tutorial, you can monitor your input signal as you go. Also, remember that you can set up different bus channels so that you can record more than one audio track at a time!
 
To view a brief tutorial on bouncing a MIDI track to audio using a bus, click on the following link:
 
Clip 15

Logic Project 12:

Create a new Logic Project and create a drum mix similar to the video above. Use drum audio loops and bounce your mix down to a single stereo track titled Drum Mix as demonstrated in the video.

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Lesson 9

Basic Audio Editing
 
We have already addressed MIDI editing earlier in this tutorial and in many ways editing
Audio Regions in Logic is quite similar. The following tutorial will show you just enough to "get the job done". But editing audio is an ongoing learning process and I encourage you to use Google, ask questions, and learn, learn, learn!
 
I have created a Logic project with some audio regions.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.09.56 AM
 
There are two methods of editing audio in Logic
 
The
Sample Editor
 
The
Arrange Window
 
I prefer to work in the
Arrange Window when editing audio so I will take you through some basic audio editing via the Arrange Window
 
When you are editing audio, you really need to expand your audio track so that you can make adjustments and edits. You can start by placing your mouse on the
Lower Left Hand Corner of the Track Name until it turns into an up/down arrow.
 
You may then grab the track and expand it downward to make it larger.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.10.36 AM
 
You may also use the
Sliders located on the upper right hand side of the Arrange Window to adjust track size.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.11.25 AM
 
Adjusting Track Length
 
To adjust the length of a track, click on the
Track Region to highlight it, place your mouse on the left or right side of the region and click and drag to shorten the track.
 
REMEMBER: Logic uses NON Destructive Editing. This means that your audio is still there. It is just not being accessed by Logic. You can always undo any edit that you make!
 
Cut, Copy, Paste, Delete, Etc.
 
This is
Exactly the same as MIDI editing. We already went over that.
 

Split By Locators, Split By Playhead
 
When you are editing audio it is sometimes useful to split an audio region into smaller segments. You can to this using two methods.
 
Split by Locator.
 
You do this by selecting the audio region you want to split by setting the
Cycle Region using Cycle.
 
Use the
Cycle Ruler to select the portion of audio you want to split.
 
Make sure that you click on the
audio region so that it is selected.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.17.37 AM
 
Notice that I have set the
Cycle ruler to the section of audio that I want to split and have clicked on the audio region to select it (the name bar has turned black).
 
Now locate the
Split By Locators icon located at the top of the Arrange Window and click on it.

Note: If this icon is not showing in your
Toolbar, click on the Toolbar icon located in the upper left hand side of your Arrange Window so that it is highlighted.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.18.06 AM

Your
Toolbar will now appear across the top of your Arrange Window.

Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.25.04 AM


To customize your Toolbar window, control click anywhere on the Toolbar and select Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.22.30 AM

You will now see the following dialog box:


Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.22.51 AM

Once you have selected what you want to appear in your
Toolbar, click OK.


Back to our Split by Locaters function.


Select the
Split by Locators icon


Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.28.26 AM

 
You will now see your audio region split by cycle locator.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.28.37 AM

 
This method allows you to edit the track as separate audio regions.
 
In
Split by Playhead you follow the same steps outline above except that you don't use the Cycle Ruler. You place the Playhead where you want to split the audio and then click on the Split By Playhead icon. I use this one the most when editing audio.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.29.29 AM
 
Join
 
Once you have made your edits, you may want to
Join the split regions back into a single region (less wear and tear on your hard drive as Logic is only looking for a single audio file). To do this.
 
Shift-Click the audio regions that you want to Join,
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.30.50 AM
 
Select the
Join icon at the top of the Arrange Window and click on it.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.31.24 AM
Your separate audio regions will now be joined into a single audio region.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 4.31.33 AM

 
Muting An Audio Region
 
Once an audio region is split, you can use the
Mute Tool to mute the split region.
 
Select the region that you want to mute by clicking on it.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.16.36 AM

 
Hit the
esc key on your computer keyboard or use the first arrow pull down menu located at the top of the Arrange Window:

Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.15.17 AM

Select the Mute Tool
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.17.29 AM
 
Your cursor will now turn into an
M for mute.
 
Click on the region that you want to mute and it will be grayed out.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.17.43 AM

 
To undo a muted region, just click on it again with the
Mute Tool
 
Hit the
esc key twice to de-select the Mute Tool.
 
Audio Editing Tools (A Brief Overview)
 
Hitting the
esc key on your computer keyboard while in Logic will provide you with a menu of Audio Editing Tools. You will be using these a lot when editing your audio tracks.
 
The
Solo Tool and the Eraser Tool function just like the Mute Tool. Select the tool and click on the region that you want to change.
 
The
Glue Tool can be used to merge two regions together.
 
Hit the
esc key on your computer keyboard and select the Glue Tool.
Your cursor will now turn to a tube of glue.

 Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.18.44 AM
Click on the first region that you want to merge to select it.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.16.36 AM

 
Shift-Click on the region or regions that you want to glue to your selected region and the Glue Tool will now merge the regions.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.19.42 AM
 
The
Zoom Tool allows you to Zoom a region in or out. This tool functions a little differently in that you have to Click and Drag and area to zoom it out.

Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.20.53 AM
 
The following is an audio track Zoomed out using the
Zoom Tool.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.22.20 AM

 
To return to
Normal View, simply click the region again with the Zoom Tool.
 
The
Text Tool allows you to change the name of the text in an audio track.
 
Select the
Text Tool.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.23.01 AM

 
Click on the text that you want to rename in the
Arrange Window
 Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.23.10 AM

 
Type in your new name and hit
return on your computer keyboard.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.23.49 AM
 
Your new text will now appear in the audio file name in the
Arrange Window.
 
Note: This will also change the name of the original audio file as it appears in the List Editors Window.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.24.33 AM

  
The
Fade Tool

Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.26.21 AM
 
There are times when you may be joining two audio loops together and you hear pops, or clicks during the playback. This may also happen at the end of a loop or region as well. Using the
Fade Tool is a good way to solve this problem.
 
In the example below, I am going to join two audio regions together.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.27.09 AM

 
I will be using my mouse to drag the two closer, until they form a continuos audio region.
 
Logic defaults to
Smart Snap mode (located on the top right hand side of the Arrange window.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.28.35 AM

 
In this mode, it may be hard to get the two audio regions to slide together. I find it is better to switch to select
Off for a finer drag.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.29.29 AM

 
Now that I have combined my two audio regions, I have noticed a slight pop occurring between them.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.30.53 AM
 
Hit the
esc key on your computer keyboard and select the Fade Tool.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.31.23 AM
 
Place your cursor on the upper right hand corner at the end of your first audio region, and drag to your left and you will see a fade appear.
 
Repeat the process for the second audio region. You should see something like the picture below:

 Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.32.57 AM
The pops or clicks, should now disappear!

Track Volume and Panning Automation
 
You may also automate
Track Volume, Panning, Solo, and Mute functions in the Arrange Window.
 
Make sure that your audio track is expanded by pulling down on the left-hand corner of the track name in
Global Tracks.
 
image032
 
Hit the
A key on your keyboard and you will now see the following appear under the track name:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.33.54 AM

You may also get to the
Automation view by clicking on the Automation icon located in the upper left hand side of the Arrange Window

Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.34.13 AM

 
Click on
Volume to view another pull down menu.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.36.14 AM

 
For this example we are going to select volume. You will now see a line appear reading
0.0 dB at the top of the audio Region in your Arrange Window
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.37.28 AM


Click on the
Volume Line to select it. The line will now turn yellow.

Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.38.11 AM
 
Let's add a
node by clicking on the line. Notice that the line now contains a dot at 0.0 dB
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.39.03 AM
 
I wan to create a volume change at the beginning of the track. I am first going to click on the line again to create two more
nodes. This is the area where I want to create my volume change.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.40.02 AM
 
I can now grab any of the
Nodes to create a volume change up or down.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 8.40.31 AM
 
When you play back the track, you can see the fader move for that track in the
Mixer window.
 
If you select
Panning, Mute, or Solo, the process is the same.
 
To view a brief tutorial on creating automation in Logic, click on the following link:
 
 
Clip 17
 
 
Logic Project 13:
 
Create a new Logic Project and add a couple of audio tracks. These could be loops, or recorded tracks. Add some Volume, Pan, Mute, and Solo automation to the tracks.

 

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Lesson 10
 
Setting Up An Effects Bus
 
While you can put an effect on each channel strip in the
Mix Window, you would quickly use up your computer's RAM and resources. There is a better way to send an effect to multiple channels using a Bus.
 
Set up a new Logic Project with an audio drum loop.
 
Open up the
Environment Window by going to the Window pull down menu and selecting Environment or by typing command-8 on your computer keyboard.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.44.34 AM

 
You should now see the
Environment Window
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.42.48 AM

 
We are now going to add a
Bus.
 
Go to the
New pull down menu and select Channel Strip and then Bus
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.45.15 AM
 
 
You will now see a
Bus strip appear in your Environment Window.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.46.11 AM
 
Hit the
esc key on your keyboard and select the Text Tool
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.47.37 AM

 
 Name your Bus 1 track Verb 1
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.46.57 AM

 
Hit the
esc key and select the pointer tool.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.47.48 AM
We now need to add a reverb or effect to our
Bus 1 verb track.

Click on the top
Inserts panel in the Bus 1 Track
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.49.46 AM

 
From the
Inserts pull down menu, select Reverb, Space Designer, Stereo.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.50.14 AM

 
You will now see the
Space Designer reverb plug-in appear.
 
image012
 
The
Space Designer plug will also appear in your Verb 1 track.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.51.11 AM
 
Locate the pull down menu located in the middle of the
Space Designer window.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.52.00 AM

 
Select
Large Spaces, Rooms, Big Drums
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.52.45 AM

You will now see the preset appear in
Space Designer


 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.52.57 AM
Once you have done that, you need to assign the
output of your Bus Verb Track to Stereo Out.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.54.52 AM

 
Now move back to the
Arrange Window and click on the Window pull down menu and select Open Mixer. Or use the keyboard short cut Command-2
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.55.49 AM

 
You should now see your
Verb 1 Bus track appearing in your Mixer Window.

Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.57.50 AM
 
If you don't see your bus track, click on the
All Button located at the top of the Mixer Window.
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.57.58 AM
 
You
Verb 1 Bus track will now be displayed.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.58.45 AM

 
Since we want to add reverb to our
drum track, we now need to bus the reverb to that track.
 
Locate the
Sends panels in the middle of the Drum Track
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 4.01.53 AM
 
Select
Bus 1
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 4.05.19 AM

You will now see the Bus appear in the Sends:

Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 4.05.32 AM

 
Now hold down the
Option key on your computer keyboard and click on the Send knob to the right of Bus 1. This will move the send knob to its half-way point, sending the verb effect to your track.
 
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 4.05.40 AM

Also note that by grabbing the
Send Knob with your mouse, you can control the amount of send signal that you want to go to the Bus, or Aux Track.


Play the track back and you should now hear the reverb on the drum track.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 4.08.12 AM
 
You can control the amount of reverb by moving the track slider on your
Verb 1 Bus Track.
 
Now you can bus that reverb to any number of tracks without too much strain on your CPU.
 
To view a brief tutorial on creating an effects bus in Logic, click on the following link:

 
Clip 18
 
Logic Project 14:
 
Create a new Logic Project and add an acoustic (no electronic drums) audio drum loop.
Create a verb bus and bus the effect to your drum track.
Try to get a natural sound to your drum loop.

 
 
Using Auto Punch
 
There may be times when you are recording that you want to record several takes in a single session and then go back and select the same take. Or, you may want to simply replace a bit of audio on a recorded take. This is where you would use
Auto Punch in Logic.
 
Let's say that you have recorded an audio track and cracked a couple of notes in the performance. On the whole, you are happy with the recorded track except for those couple of notes. Instead of re-recording the entire track, you just need to re-record a couple of notes.

You will probably have to
Customize your Control Bar.

Control Click anywhere on your Control Bar:
Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.05.26 AM

Select Customize Control Bar and Display

Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.05.37 AM

Under the
Modes and Functions column select Autopunch and click OK



Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.08.58 AM

You will now see the
Autopunch icon appear on the right hand side of your Control Bar:


 Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.09.27 AM
Select
Auto Punch by clicking on the button in the Control Bar.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.12.00 AM
 
It will now turn red indicating that it is enabled.

 
Not that it is enabled,
Auto Punch will now also appear as a red bar in your ruler at the top of the Arrange Window.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.12.20 AM

 
Adjust the
Auto Punch bar over the audio that you want to replace. This works just like our cycle bar.

Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.13.39 AM
 
Adjust your
Cycle Region to two or three bars before the audio that you want to replace to give you time before you re-record the new audio.
 
Hit
Record on your transport bar and punch in your new audio.
 
Logic will keep your original track intact and add your newly created track as well.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.15.28 AM
 
Also notice that your
Punch In has been added to the Browsers Window. Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.19.06 AM
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.18.46 AM
 
If you are not happy with your new performance, simply hit
Command-Z on your computer keyboard and do it again!
 
 
Reverb Basics
 
You are going to find that as a composer you will probably have to do audio engineering as well. Most of the clients that you work for will not have the extra funds to hire a composer and an audio engineer. You are going to have to wear two hats!
 
The effects that come with Logic are among the best and most complicated plug-ins that are available. Having said that, they are very complex and you will need to spend time with them, experiment, and let your ears be the final guide. Audio engineering is an art, not a science. There is no set formula for getting that next great mix or sound. Your ears will always have the final say.
 
The function of reverb is to create a space around a sound in a controlled acoustical environment. Here is a list of the most common reverb spaces:
 
Large hall This is typically a concert hall where symphony orchestras perform. Examples in the "real" world include Symphony Hall in Boston and Carnegie Hall in New York.
 
Small Hall Usually around 2000 square feet and is typically a recital hall where chamber groups would perform.
 
Stage This can be thought of as a stage in a night club and is typically 20-30 feet.
Room This can be any room where of about 30-50 square feet. It may also be somewhat "dry" sounding. These also include bathrooms, which can contain a lot of reverb!
 
Studio Technology now allows us to emulate the sound of the rooms in major recording studios. These typically come in three sizes.
 
Studio A for large groups such as orchestras used for Hollywood film stages.
 
Studio B for smaller ensembles and pop type groups.
 
Studio C for smaller more intimate groups
 
Cathedrals emulate the reflections typically found in larger stone cathedrals found in Europe such as Notre Dame in France. Typically used for larger groups.
 
Reverb Applications In Logic
 
There are several parameters that you can tweak while using Logic's effects.
 
Room Shape gives us the geometric dimensions of the room ranging from a value of 3-7 representing the corners in a room in the form of a graphic display.
 
image030
Graphic display of a room shape in Logic's GoldVerb
 
Room Size This provides us with the dimensions of the room and the length of the walls (distance between 2 corners). The distance is measured in meters from 1-100. This can be strange to Americans as we prefer feet. Conversion is fairly simple:
 
Meters X 3.28 = Feet
 
For example, 20 meters would be:
 
20x3.28 which equals 65.6 feet.
 
In the following screen shot using
GoldVerb as a plug in on an audio track, the Room Size is set to 20 meters or roughly 66 feet. (rounded up). When you adjust the Room Size the graphic display of the Room Shape will automatically be adjusted as well.
 
image032
Room size set to 20m or 65.6 feet
 
Note: Averb and SilverVerb function differently from what I described above. Both have room sizes of 1-200 with no real explanation of what those numbers mean and no geometrical representation of room size. Experiment and use your ears to get the best results.
 

 
More Reverb Controls
 
To better understand the following concepts, insert
AVerb into an audio track. For this tutorial I have selected an acoustic drum loop.
 
image033
 
image034
 
You should now see the
AVerb Control window.
 
image035
 
Mix- this lets us choose a balance between Wet (with reverb) and Dry (no reverb). The default is usually 100%. I usually start at about 20% and use my ears to dictate the proper amount. Simply grad the slider and move it up/down to change the Mix Value.
 
Experiment with different
Mix values on your drum track.
 
Pre-delay allows you to determine when you hear the reverb start to work. The lower the number the faster you will hear the reverb start to work. Again, experiment with this setting as it is going to vary from instrument to instrument.
 
Initial delay this is not available on all reverbs. This adjusts the placement of the dry sound in relation to the time it enters. A longer initial delay will allow the dry sound to enter later in time. Again, you need to experiment with different instruments.
 
Reflectivity this defines how much reflection there will be off the walls, ceiling, and floor of the sampled reverb room. In the "real" world walls etc will be made of different materials such as, plaster, stone, carpet, glass etc. These have a dramatic effect on the sound of the reverb. You have to experiment to find the Reflectivity setting that sounds the most natural to you.
 
Density/Time This determines the density of the reverb and the duration of the reverb. As with all the other settings, there is no hard and fast rules-use your ears!
 
Presets The engineers at Apple have put together some great presets for all of the effects in Logic. We can learn a lot from these Presets.
 
To select a
Preset click on the default pull down menu located at the top of the effect.
 
image036
 
You can then select a reverb designed by Apple
 
image037
 
Note the settings. If you like the sound you can save it as your own, or tweak the settings a bit and save it as a new reverb. Once you have done this for a while you will develop a whole new set of effects that work well with the music you are writing.
 
To De-Select An Effect
 
To change or
De-select an effect, click on the effect name in the channel strip and select no plug-in.
 
image038
 
Even More Reverb Controls
 
To better explain the following controls keep your drum track and insert
GoldVerb into the channel strip.
 
image039
 
We have a couple of new controls to discuss.
 
 
Stereo Base
 
image040
 
This control gives you the position of two "virtual" microphone placed in the stereo field. The range is 0.0-2 meters for a distance of about 6.5 feet.
 
Experiment with moving the distance one meter at a time. What you are doing is creating a wider stereo field as you increase the number.
 
Spread
 
image041
 
This functions almost like
Stereo Base except that it is controlling the stereo image of the reverb. As you increase the number you are expanding the reverb print.
 
High Cut
 
image042
 
This control allows you to shape the EQ built into the reverb so you can EQ a total dry sound or a dry sound with added reverb. Use your ears to experiment.
Turning High Cut down emulates a smaller room with softer surfaces. Turning High Cut up emulates a room with harder surfaces and gives you the impression that you are in a larger room.
 
Experiment with the different reverbs and reverb settings on different instruments. Also use Apple's presets as a starting place. There are some great presets included with Logic.
 
Compressor Basics
 
image044
 
You can think of a
compressor as an automated mixing board that levels out the dynamic range of a sound or track so that the sound is uniform and does not jump up and down in your mix.
 
There are
Five Basic Controls:
 
Ratio- This is the first step in the compressor set up and can be thought of as input level to output level. This is typically measured as a ratio. For example, a 3:1 compression ratio indicates that only 1/3 of the signal is output and so on. This, in effect, smoothes out your audio output signal so you can better control the sound in the mix. 3:1 and 7:1 compressions are the most natural sounding. Again, let your ears make the final determination as to the best ratio.
 
Attack and Release (or decay) This should be your second step when setting up a compressor. Usually a good starting place is an attack time of around 1ms and a release time between ½  to 1 second. Let your ears make the decision.
 
Threshold should be your last setting. This is the amount of Gain Reduction that will be applied to your track or sound. Once a sound hits the Threshold level the compressor will start to work. Be very careful when setting this level, usually 3dB to 6dB will get the job done. Let your ears make the final decision.
 
Gain This will turn up the volume of the entire signal. This is how you get a signal "hotter" in the mix. Be very careful not to over compress your mixes. Let your ears be your final guide.
 
Logic comes bundled with several compressors that can be inserted into a channel strip located under
Dynamics. Experiment with each one and how they shape your sounds.
 
image045
 
 
Film Scoring In Logic
  
I am going to provide you with a couple of short QuickTime Movies to import and practice with.

PLEASE NOTE THAT THESE MOVIES ARE COPYRIGHTED AND ARE NOT TO BE POSTED ONLINE!!!!!!!

Click on the link below and save the movie to your desktop.
  
Quicktime Movies
 
Create a new Logic Project and add either an audio track or Software Instrument track.

Save your project to the desktop and make sure that you select
Organize my project as a Folder

Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.37.27 AM

You should now see your Logic project folder appear on your desktop:


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.40.01 AM

Place your
Mr. Bean Movie (or other movie clip) into the folder. We do this so that you will always know where your movie is in case you move the project to another hard drive etc.


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.38.52 AM

This way your movie will always be moved with the project if you ever move the folder.

 
First we need to prepare Logic to read the proper SMPTE time code for the movie. If you are not familiar with SMPTE time code please click on the link below:
 
SMPTE
 

Preparing Logic For Video Import

Now we need to determine the FPS (frames per second) of our Mr. Bean Movie.

Double click on the Mr. Bean movie to open it in
QuickTime


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.30.56 AM


To determine the Frame Rate of a movie, make sure the movie is selected and click on command-i on your computer keyboard. You should now see the following:

Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.31.49 AM

Notice that the frame rate for the Mr. Bean movie:

FPS: 30

This is telling us that the movie is playing at 30 frames per second. When we set up our Logic project for this movie
we are going to need that information.


Open up your newly created Logic Movie Project and go to the
Logic Pro X Preferences pull down menu
and select
Display...
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.51.29 AM
 
  
You will now see the
Displays dialog box.

Make sure
Display Time as: SMPTE/EBU with Subframes is selected

Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.55.31 AM
 

Close the
Preferences Window by clicking on the upper left-hand close box in the window.

Go to the
File pull down menu and select Movie, Open Movie...

Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.57.34 AM

Locate your movie in your Logic Project folder and open it:


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.57.57 AM




You will now see the following dialog box:


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.58.07 AM

Make sure both boxes are selected and click OK.


Your movie will now appear in your Logic project. You will also notice that Logic has added a Movie track and Audio track to your Arrange Window:


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 4.12.04 AM



Most of the time you do not want the movie appearing in the middle of your arrange window. This is when having a two monitor setup it GREAT!

To move the movie into the
info area of the arrange window. Click on the X in the upper Left hand side of the movie. Your movie will now collapse into the Info column

Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 4.03.59 AM

Note: If you do not see your move in the Info area, make your that you have the Info icon selected on the top left hand side of the Arrange Window


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 4.06.57 AM



 
We now want to set Logic's SMPTE code to match that of our movie.
 
Go to the
Logic Pro X pull down menu and select Movie
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.06.03 AM

You will now see the
Preferences window:
Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.06.26 AM

Select
Movie Project Settings…


Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.06.32 AM

You will now see the
Project Settings Menu

Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.11.01 AM



 
Select
Synchronization located in the top of the Project Settings menu
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.08.29 AM

 
From the
Frame Rate: pull down menu, select 30 to match our movie.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.13.25 AM

You may see the following window, YES we do indeed want 30!

Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.13.14 AM

 
Close the window by clicking on the upper left-hand corner.

Now we need to set our
Display Mode to Beats and Time

Click and hold on the Display Mode icon

Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.17.12 AM


Select
Beats and Time

Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.20.22 AM



I like to see a giant SMPTE display when I am scoring movies. To do this
 
Click and hold again on the
Display Mode icon and select Open Giant Time Display
Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.22.59 AM

You will now see a floating window that displays our
SMPTE (time mode for our movie)


Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.23.11 AM

 
To view a brief tutorial on importing a movie into Logic, click on the following link:
 
 
Clip 20


Exporting Your Soundtrack
 
Once you have composed your soundtrack you can export all or a portion of the movie. Here is how you do this:
 
Select the portion of the movie that you want to export using
Cycle
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-26 at 4.06.38 AM
 
From the
File pull down menu select Movie, Export Audio to Movie…
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-26 at 4.06.52 AM
 
You will now see the following:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-26 at 4.07.22 AM
 
Notice that I am saving it to the
desktop and that I am renaming the movie as Mr. Bean Clip
Now I know that this is a different movie than the original.
 
Click
OK and you will now see the following:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-26 at 4.10.17 AM

Keep clicking
OK and you will see your movie on your desktop complete with your soundtrack and the movie's original audio.

Screen Shot 2014-02-26 at 4.10.55 AM


Logic Project 15:
 
Provide a short score to one of the movie clips that you downloaded. Upload your entire zipped folder (including the movie clip).

 

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Lesson 11
Drummer And Drum Kit Designer


 
Drummer and Drum Kit Designer
 
I have a confession to make. Logic’s Arrange Window, which I have been referring to throughout the entire tutorial is now called

Wait for it….

The MAIN Window!

I know, not very exciting, but just thought that I would share that bit of geeky info with you.

Anyway, on to what I consider to be one of the most exciting new additions to logic X.

The
Drummer and Drum Kit Designer (this is going to put a lot of drummers out of work)

Create a new project and title it
Lesson 11.

Launch Logic and select Empty Project

Screen Shot 2014-02-27 at 4.04.55 AM


We are now going to select Drummer:


Screen Shot 2014-02-27 at 4.05.09 AM

Notice that our Main Window now looks a bit different:


We have a drummer track:

Screen Shot 2014-02-27 at 4.07.23 AM

And below it kit and style info:


Screen Shot 2014-02-27 at 4.07.30 AM



Let’s start with the Style selector. Click and hold on the Rock pull down menu and you will see the different Styles that are available


Screen Shot 2014-02-27 at 4.10.18 AM

If we change styles and select
Alternative you will now see the different drummers associated with that style:


Screen Shot 2014-02-27 at 4.10.58 AM

It is interesting to note that when we first loaded the
Rock style we were only presented with one drummer.

If you go back and select
Rock again, you will now see more drummers:


Screen Shot 2014-02-27 at 4.13.26 AM

Note: If you are not seeing all of the drummers listed above, you need to go back and Download Additional Content

from the Logic Pro X pull down menu.



Screen Shot 2014-02-27 at 4.14.33 AM

It is probably easier just to click on
Select All Uninstalled

Screen Shot 2014-02-27 at 4.14.50 AM

You will now see the following message:


Screen Shot 2014-02-27 at 4.16.33 AM

Go grab several cups of coffee, because this going to take a while!

Once the content is downloaded, Apple will then install it. Time for another cup of coffee, or four!



Screen Shot 2014-02-27 at 4.23.01 AM

Now you will see the following:



Screen Shot 2014-02-27 at 4.23.57 AM

Be patient with this last one. It may take a long, long time, in a galaxy far, far, away.


Changing Styles and Drummers
 
OK, back to our drummers. Apple has selected some of the best session drummer in LA for use in Logic!

For my first selection, I am going to choose the
Rock Style, and select Kyle for the drummer:

Screen Shot 2014-03-03 at 4.09.41 AM

Now listen to the groove that Kyle is laying down by hitting the
space bar.

If you hover your mouse over a drummer’s picture, you will get a brief description of the drummer and the style:


Screen Shot 2014-03-03 at 4.16.10 AM

Also, once you click on a drummer you will also get a description of the drummer and and style:


Screen Shot 2014-03-03 at 4.18.41 AM


If you hover your mouse over the drum kit section below the drummers picture you will see the following


Screen Shot 2014-03-03 at 4.21.17 AM

If you click on the
Slider Icon you will bring up the Drum Kit Designer window:



Screen Shot 2014-03-03 at 4.21.29 AM


More on that later. Close the window by clicking on the X in upper left hand section of the screen.


Experiment with different drummers and listen to the different grooves that they lay down.


Selecting Presets
 
You will notice that you have a Presets list that appears with each selected drummer

Screen Shot 2014-03-03 at 4.12.37 AM

By selecting different presets, you can also hear different grooves within each drummer selection.

When we get into changing drum sets, settings etc. This menu also allows you to save your own presets! Very Cool!


Screen Shot 2014-03-03 at 4.25.36 AM

Another very cool setting is
Keeping Settings when Changing Drummers. More on that later!

Next you have a grid, where you can change the way the drummer plays by moving the yellow dot around in real time as the drummer plays a groove.


Screen Shot 2014-03-03 at 4.27.14 AM

Try it! Move the grid dot around as your drummer plays!



The next window over allows you to change the variations on the

Percussion This is grayed out because there is no percussion instruments in this particular groove

Hi-Hat This allows you to change the way the drummer plays the Hi Hat

Kick and Snare
Moving this slider will change the kick and snare playing


Screen Shot 2014-03-04 at 4.15.42 AM

Try it! Experiment with the different settings for the menu above.

Next we have the
Fills and Swing Knobs



Screen Shot 2014-03-04 at 4.15.54 AM

Fills allows you to increase the complexity of the fills from short to long

Swing allows you to add a swing feel to the groove.

If you click on the
Details icon you will now see the following:


Screen Shot 2014-03-04 at 4.16.05 AM

Feel: This allows you to push or pull the groove ahead or behind the beat.

Ghost Notes: This allows you change the way the drummer plays the snare (dragging the stick across the snare or hitting the drum)

Hi Hat: This allows you to select whether you want the hi hat to be played open/closed or a combination.

Try it! Experiment with the different settings and see how it affects your drum groove.


To view a brief tutorial on the topics discussed above, click on the following link:

Clip 21


Getting Our Drummer To Play An Arrangement
 
We are now going to have our drummer play sections in an arrangement such as Verse, Chorus etc.

Create a new Logic Project and add a
Software Instrument

Click on the Hide/Show Global Tracks Screen Shot 2014-03-07 at 4.09.39 AM located at the top of the second column of the Inspector Window
Screen Shot 2014-03-07 at 4.12.35 AM It will turn blue and you will see the following:


Screen Shot 2014-03-07 at 4.09.49 AM

Click on the + circle in the Arrangement column and notice that a Verse will now be added to your Marker Window


Screen Shot 2014-03-07 at 4.10.02 AM

Repeat the above process until you and a Verse and Chorus



Screen Shot 2014-03-07 at 4.19.45 AM


Changing The Name of your Marker

Click and hold your mouse over the Marker Name and you will see the following up/down arrows appear:

Screen Shot 2014-03-07 at 4.31.39 AM

You may now select a marker name or create your own.



Screen Shot 2014-03-07 at 4.31.47 AM

For this project we are going to create
Verse, Chorus, Verse so we can see how our drummer reacts to the markers.



Screen Shot 2014-03-07 at 4.32.03 AM

To change the bar length of your
Marker, position your mouse to the right of the Marker and click and drag left or right to expand or contract.


Now load in a drummer and see how he reacts to your markers. The drum track will also indicated your
Song Makers:



Screen Shot 2014-03-08 at 3.56.53 AM


On playback you will notice that the drummer will fill, change styles etc. VERY COOL!


To view a brief tutorial on the topics discussed above, click on the following link:

Clip 22

Having Your Drummer Follow a Bass Line or Other Instrument

Logic also allows a drummer to follow another instrument.

Rather than write this out, watch the video on how to set this up:

Clip 23

Populate With Drummer Regions

If your selected drummer is still not getting the groove a feel that you think he/she should, before you fire them and try
a new drummer, watch the following video tutorial:

Clip 24

Automating Drummer Regions To Change How Your Drummer Performs a Groove

With Drummer, you can spit a performance into as many regions as you like and change the way a drummer plays from
region to region. In essence you are automating the drummer’s performance. To see how this is done, view the following
video tutorial:


Clip 25

Using The Drummer Editor

With drummer you can also automate which drums are being played in specific regions. Watch the following tutorial:


Clip 26

Adding Fills with Drummer

Clip 27

Changing The Drums in a drumset

Clip 28

Configuring Multi-Outs for Mixing and Effects on Each Drum

This is so easy to do, that it should almost be illegal!

Clip 29

Turning Audio Drummer Tracks Into MIDI Data

This is also so easy that it should be illegal!

Clip 30

Logic Project 16:
 
Create a new Logic Project with a drummer track playing a Verse, Chorus, Verse form. Label your sections.

This concludes my introductory course to Logic ProX. This is a VERY deep program and I encourage you to dig MUCH deeper into Logic!

I wish you all the best! I always appreciate feedback for these free tutorials. If you have any suggestions on how I can make this tutorial better, please let me know.
And…if you enjoyed this tutorial, feel free to reach out and let me know that too!


Rik Pfenninger


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